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ALwin

Guide: Film/Photo makers' useful resources (work in progress)

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Posted · Original PosterOP

*My guides or reference materials will be kept as "work in progress" forever as I intend to keep on improving and updating them as long as I am able.  There are so many things to cover and I have to search again on some great stuff I have used to help others over the years.

 

Let me start off by saying, whether you're interested in photography, cinematography, or even just recording sound:

While having high quality expensive gear would be nice, don't let the lack of having such gear stop you from being creative.

As you progress, gain experience, you will learn to understand what your gear is capable of doing and what its limitations are.  With that you will learn to figure out where you need to upgrade or replace to improve without going out and buying an entirely new set of more expensive gear.

 

Note: some of the links I post will have a number next to them in brackets.  This indicates that there are more than one good explanations or methods to do certain things.
 
Ok while my other guide on helping beginners choose between a DSLR/Mirrorless camera and a proper video camera, I thought I'd start another thread where I post links and videos on topics that people who are interesting in making videos or improving their photography skills should know.
 
If you have links to guides, videos, etc. that you believe will provide knowledge to budding film makers, and to photographers too because there are some overlapping of knowledge, feel free to share them.
 
As this guide is intended for beginners I will cover mainly the basic concepts.  For more advanced or technical concepts, I will try to cover them as a Q&A.  I also doubt if I will cover everything here, such as color correction, different settings for your speedlights, setting exposures, operating your camera, and so on.  I am intending this guide to act as a primer to help beginners improve upon some of the very basic stuff they should know.  Feel free to suggest topics you think I should cover, but I withhold the right to decide whether they get added or not.
 
Guides
Aspect Ratio/Cropping
Choosing a good aspect ration for your video, different genres of film or different storylines of film may require the use of different aspect ratio. 16:9 is not always the best choice to use, as this video will explain.

Perspective
Understanding perspective when choosing a lens or selecting a focal length to use.  The Dolly zoom, sometimes referred to as the Hitchcock zoom/effect, is a pretty good way of explaining to you what happens to your photo or video's perspective when you select a focal length to use or change focal lengths during filming.  As a film technique, it is great when used appropriately, but it should not be used all the time.  For photographers, observing the effects of the technique will show you the differences between using a wide angle lens and a telephoto lens.

Tips for posing your subject(s)
I saw these videos yesterday, created by a wedding photographer named Lexia Frank, and her videos give you quick and easy to understand explanations of how to tell your subject to pose for you in front of the camera.  Now while they apply mostly to photography, some of what her tips can be used in video.

Rules

  • KISS, always use KISS (Keep It Simple Stupid)
  • Rule of thirds, the important thing is why the rule works, not what the rule is

Other topics

Gear and accessories

I'll also make a list of gear and accessories later, as a starter for beginners.  The following are the basic gear you will need, and I will expand on each and provide tips on choosing the right one.

  • Camera, for this you can read my guide about DSLR/Mirrorless cameras and video cameras. This will help you make a decision on which type of camera to get if you want to shoot video.  For photos, 80% of the cameras these days are good.  Or just let us know your requirements and we will help you find the right camera for you.
  • Lens (for interchangeable lens cameras, both photo and video).  As long as you have a lens or set of lenses that cover the 24mm to 200mm focal length range (35mm equivalent), you are set for 95% of your needs.

The additional items mentioned below are for videographers.
 
Audio recording
Built in microphones do not record clean audio.  Especially those built into DSLR/Mirrorless camera bodies that have moving parts (reflex mirror, shutter).  Some are even sensitive enough to pick up the noise of the AF and IS system in the lenses.  Hence using an external microphone attached to the camera or an external recorder is recommended.
 
Your basic camera setup should have at least 1 external microphone (e.g. Rode Video Mic) or a recorder (e.g. Zoom H1).
 
The advantage of an external microphone is that it is either off camera or mounted on camera with a mount that is designed to reduce vibrations.  The disadvantage, audio amps in DSLRs, mirrorless cameras and consumer camcorders tend to be limited.
 
External recorders can be mounted to a camera using a variety of mounts (hotshoe adapters, mini arms, etc).  Higher end recorders come with multi channel recording capability and support for a variety of inputs. External records such as the Tascam DR-100 or DR-60D, or the Zoom H4n have high quality audio amps built in and are able to provide phantom power to external microphones that require them.
 
While a person on a budget may consider a low cost video mic or recorder I would recommend that if budget is not a major factor in your purchasing you should get the Tascam DR-100.  Why?

  • Dual battery support (it comes with a Li-Ion battery pack and you can also use 2x AA batteries)
  • The two directional mics in front are very sensitive, it also comes with support for 2x XLR connections.
  • It has a line out port and a headphone port for monitoring audio.  This way you can use a line out cable to feed audio to your camera, while recording on the DR-100's memory card at the same time.  You use the audio track in camera for syncing with the better audio recorded by the DR-100.

The same can be done with the Zoom H4n, however the two mics on the H4n are not aimed straight forward.  They can be rotated to provide a 90 degree or 120 degree coverage.
 
Additional microphones that videographers should invest in:

  • Shotgun mic (e.g. Rode NTG2), and perhaps a boom stick for the times when the audio source is a distance away from the camera.
  • Wireless lavalier microphones (e.g. Sennheisers), useful when doing interviews.  I personally recommend that you have at least two lavalier sets.  Wireless lavs are better when you are working alone and don't have an assistant to hold a boom mic.
  • Other accessories you need will be wind covers and dead cat wind muffs, they are very useful for outdoor recording and can reduce ambient and background noise.

Tripod and tripod heads
If you want to keep your camera stable, safe, and the camera is going to stay in one place then invest in a good sturdy tripod.  Do not buy those cheap flimsy aluminum ones sold in a general department store.  You don't have to invest in an expensive Manfrotto or Gitzo, you can go for ebay brands such as Benro which are pretty good.  However, before you buy the tripod make sure it is solid enough to support the way of your camera and accessories.  (Tip: always add a few extra kilos to your gear's weight to be on the safe side.)  Also do not forget to make sure that it can support the tripod head you choose.  You do not want a small tripod for a large tripod head.
 
Now for tripod heads, the type of head you choose will depend whether you are a photographer or videographer.  There are a variety of tripod head systems for photographers.  I generally prefer a ballhead with friction control and Arca-Swiss style quick release system but perhaps if you enjoy macro photography you want to get a geared head, or for those who do panoramas get a pano head.  For videographers, you want a fluid video tripod head with a good handle.  You want something solid, able to hold the weight of your gear and has a counter balance system that will help keep things stable.  The Manfrotto 502HD is a good video tripod head.
 
I also recommend that people avoid getting tripods with a geared central column system.  A good tripod and tripod head will last you years.
 
You can also invest in a monopod, however keep in mind you need to keep a hold of them.  Unlike tripods they are not meant for hands free use, nor do they provide the very solid stability of a tripod.  Monopods are ideal for people who move around with their camera a lot, such as hikers who like to photograph.  And they rarely are ideal for videographers, though a long monopod can be used to film from a high angle.
 
Camera rig (for video)
Whether you are using a tripod, or want to shoulder mount your camera, or hold the camera in other ways you will need a good rig for the camera and accessories.  Especially for videographers with a DSLR/Mirrorless camera and need to attach microphones, audio recorders, field monitors and other accessories.
 
A basic rig for the camera should have a mounting plate and support for two 15mm rods.  A better rig will allow you to quickly switch from tripod to shoulder mount and vice versa.  You will need several attachment points, either mounted to the rods or as part of the rig's skeleton for mounting accessories (mainly for DSLR/Mirrorless camera users).
 
Focusing systems
When recording video, unless you are doing home/family/vacation videos and do not have time to carry around all the extra gear, I always recommend that you disable the auto focus and learn to use manual focusing properly.  AF systems do not know what you want to focus and how you want the focus to change throughout your filming.  Also, I recommend that you invest in a follow focus system as turning the focus ring on the lens with your hands can introduce instability in your recording.
 
A good follow focus will be adjustable to fit a variety of lens sizes, will operate smoothly and will mount onto the 15mm rods.
 
With focusing comes the issue of know if you are focusing properly. Optical and electronic viewfinders in cameras, while they generally have an indicator of some sort that tells you of something is in focus or not, rely on the focus points of the AF system in your camera.  They are also too small to see if you are focusing properly when pulling focus throughout the scene.
 
The back or side LCD on your camera is a better option, however even the largest screen on a DSLR/Mirrorless camera is only a few inches in size.  And rarely do DSLR/Mirrorless cameras for video include helpful features for videographers.  Using a viewfinder loupe that mounts on the LCD can be a bit more helpful.  However, unless you are using a proper video camera (most video cameras have LCD displays that show focus peaking), I recommend that you invest in a good field monitor that can be mounted to your rig and can utilize the clean output of your camera.  A good field monitor should have the following features

  • Focus peaking to assist your focus pulling
  • False color display to show your exposure levels
  • Guidelines to help you frame your scenes for different aspect ratios

Filters
While modern digital cameras allow you to control the shutter speed, video recording frame rate, ISO and aperture settings, having and using filters in front of your lenses is still essential.  For two reasons

  • Your camera settings may have a limited range.
  • Changing shutter speed, ISO and aperture can change the recorded image in ways you don't want.

Two basic types of filters that photographers and videographers should invest in

  • Neutral Density filters (ND), they can help reduce the amount of light reaching the sensor.
  • Soft, Hard and Reverse edge Gradient Neutral Density filters, especially useful when part of the scene contains extreme shadows or highlights.  ND gradient filters can help ameliorate bad lighting conditions or limited dynamic range capability of your sensor.

Other filters you can use are color filters, circular polarizers and infrared filters.  Take care when using such filters.  I generally do not recommend them for videographers.  Polarizers and IR filters can be very useful for photographers who know how to use them.

  • Dolly, sliders, accessories that help you add motion to your shots
  • Lights
  • Other accessories

The main thing is DO NOT SKIMP out investing in good gear and accessories.
 
Workflow

I will only post links to various workflow guides for software that I have experience with.  The reason being, while anyone who is familiar with the software can make a workflow guide, if I am not familiar with the software I wouldn't trust myself to judge if the guide is good or someone is just trying to push how they do things which may not always be the optimal method.

 
Working as a professional
Here I will cover some aspects of what will be involved when you want to work as a professional. Either for yourself, a freelancer that offers services for agencies, or a contracted professional.
 
Recording video for your use, either for personal stuff like family/holiday videos or even for your own Youtube tech channel like Linus, it's easy to do.  You define your own requirements.  However when you record footage for someone else to use, that's where you have to talk to the other party and ask them how they want things.  You can't always choose what you want to do, they may tell you they need the video format in ProRes but your camera only records H.264 and they may or may not accept a converted video, what will you do?
 
I can already give you an example of what you may be required to do when you are working either as a freelancer or contracted professional for an agency that has their own requirements. This is the document given to all freelancers and producers who record footage for an agency where I sometimes work freelance.
(ILO_technical_note_for_producers_ENGLISH2015.doc)
 
BBC's guidelines are another example.
 
TIP: If you get hired to work for a client that requires you to record video in 4K but they only have the capacity to handle Standard Definition (SD) video, tell them they are being foolish. ;)  Politely of course.
 
External resources

 

 

 

I just saw this Behind the Scene video by Vincent Laforet, where he along with two sound guys give a brief talk about capturing audio.  Thought I share it here.

 

 

 

Film looks

 

 

 

Sound recording

 

 

 

List of YouTube Channels to follow or just explore.

 

Feel free to suggest more and I will add them to the list, if I think they provide actual useful guidance or knowledge. So that means NO FroKnowsPhoto.  I don't want too many "gear review" or "gear is more important than creativity/vision" type of channels.

 

Keep in mind that not all the videos in each channel will be relevant or add to your knowledge.  Some channels have mixed content, so while I may put them in one group there are videos that relate to the other group too.

 

Disclaimer: There are so many, I don't even remember all of them at the top of my head so this list will certainly grow.

 

For cinematography (including channels that deal with recording sound)

 

For photography:

 

Other resources:

 


Guide: DSLR or Video camera?, Guide: Film/Photo makers' useful resources, Guide: Lenses, a quick primer

Nikon D4, Nikon D800E, Fuji X-E2, Canon G16, Gopro Hero 3+, iPhone 5s. Hasselblad 500C/M, Sony PXW-FS7

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I've seen times when dolly zoom has been used and I really didn't like it. Like in CaptainSparklez's Take Back the Night music video (its animated BTW), after the old trainer guy dies, they go for a close up on the young guy's face, and change the focal length rather quickly, I really don't like it, as it makes it seem to me like they are trying to instill too much drama into the shot.

Correct me if I'm wrong (I probably am), but when you are designing camera movement and figuring out the framing and movement of the shot, you try to use it to reinforce the mood of the scene but at the same time, you don't want the viewer to notice it or see what you are doing.


So thanks for reading guys, if this post sucked, I'm not sure what you can do, but if you liked it, go 'head and hit that like button, or maybe add me as a friend. Otherwise, go subscribe to LinusTechTips on YouTube, follow them on Twitch, follow @LinusTech on Twitter, and support them by using their affiliate code on Amazon, buying a cool T-shirt, or supporting them directly on this community forum.

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Posted · Original PosterOP

I've seen times when dolly zoom has been used and I really didn't like it. Like in CaptainSparklez's Take Back the Night music video (its animated BTW), after the old trainer guy dies, they go for a close up on the young guy's face, and change the focal length rather quickly, I really don't like it, as it makes it seem to me like they are trying to instill too much drama into the shot.

Correct me if I'm wrong (I probably am), but when you are designing camera movement and figuring out the framing and movement of the shot, you try to use it to reinforce the mood of the scene but at the same time, you don't want the viewer to notice it or see what you are doing.

The Dolly zoom shouldn't be used all the time, but if used appropriately it is a wonderful film making technique.  However here in this guide my main point is not to teach someone how to use the technique but to provide a visual explanation of what different focal lengths does to perspective, in photography and videography.  The technique is a good way to understand what a wide angle lens or telephoto lens does to a composition.


Guide: DSLR or Video camera?, Guide: Film/Photo makers' useful resources, Guide: Lenses, a quick primer

Nikon D4, Nikon D800E, Fuji X-E2, Canon G16, Gopro Hero 3+, iPhone 5s. Hasselblad 500C/M, Sony PXW-FS7

ICT Consultant, Photographer, Video producer, Scuba diver and underwater explorer, Nature & humanitarian documentary producer

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The Dolly zoom shouldn't be used all the time, but if used appropriately it is a wonderful film making technique.  However here in this guide my main point is not to teach someone how to use the technique but to provide a visual explanation of what different focal lengths does to perspective, in photography and videography.  The technique is a good way to understand what a wide angle lens or telephoto lens does to a composition.

Yeah totally, I was just putting it out there. Am I right that you should try to make your use of framing and these techniques go unnoticed, or not?


So thanks for reading guys, if this post sucked, I'm not sure what you can do, but if you liked it, go 'head and hit that like button, or maybe add me as a friend. Otherwise, go subscribe to LinusTechTips on YouTube, follow them on Twitch, follow @LinusTech on Twitter, and support them by using their affiliate code on Amazon, buying a cool T-shirt, or supporting them directly on this community forum.

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Posted · Original PosterOP

Yeah totally, I was just putting it out there. Am I right that you should try to make your use of framing and these techniques go unnoticed, or not?

Generally speaking, unless a viewer is familiar with these techniques they will not notice them.  The main point is not the audience, it's what you choose to use.  If your video is done properly, has a good script, cinematography is done well, etc. the audiences will love it.


Guide: DSLR or Video camera?, Guide: Film/Photo makers' useful resources, Guide: Lenses, a quick primer

Nikon D4, Nikon D800E, Fuji X-E2, Canon G16, Gopro Hero 3+, iPhone 5s. Hasselblad 500C/M, Sony PXW-FS7

ICT Consultant, Photographer, Video producer, Scuba diver and underwater explorer, Nature & humanitarian documentary producer

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Generally speaking, unless a viewer is familiar with these techniques they will not notice them.  The main point is not the audience, it's what you choose to use.  If your video is done properly, has a good script, cinematography is done well, etc. the audiences will love it.

Good advice, I guess I'll stop bothering you and let you get whatever it is you need to do, done  :P.


So thanks for reading guys, if this post sucked, I'm not sure what you can do, but if you liked it, go 'head and hit that like button, or maybe add me as a friend. Otherwise, go subscribe to LinusTechTips on YouTube, follow them on Twitch, follow @LinusTech on Twitter, and support them by using their affiliate code on Amazon, buying a cool T-shirt, or supporting them directly on this community forum.

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Posted · Original PosterOP

Ok expanded a few more areas, but completing this is going to be much harder.  There are too many areas to cover and generalizing certain topics is not easy.

 

Some things are better dealt with on an individual basis, as there are many types of photographers and videographers.  For example, what I would teach a landscape photographer would be different from what I would teach a portrait photographer.


Guide: DSLR or Video camera?, Guide: Film/Photo makers' useful resources, Guide: Lenses, a quick primer

Nikon D4, Nikon D800E, Fuji X-E2, Canon G16, Gopro Hero 3+, iPhone 5s. Hasselblad 500C/M, Sony PXW-FS7

ICT Consultant, Photographer, Video producer, Scuba diver and underwater explorer, Nature & humanitarian documentary producer

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Posted · Original PosterOP

Photography tips for beginners


Guide: DSLR or Video camera?, Guide: Film/Photo makers' useful resources, Guide: Lenses, a quick primer

Nikon D4, Nikon D800E, Fuji X-E2, Canon G16, Gopro Hero 3+, iPhone 5s. Hasselblad 500C/M, Sony PXW-FS7

ICT Consultant, Photographer, Video producer, Scuba diver and underwater explorer, Nature & humanitarian documentary producer

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Posted · Original PosterOP

I just saw this Behind the Scene video by Vincent Laforet, where he along with two sound guys give a brief talk about capturing audio.  Thought I share it here.

 


Guide: DSLR or Video camera?, Guide: Film/Photo makers' useful resources, Guide: Lenses, a quick primer

Nikon D4, Nikon D800E, Fuji X-E2, Canon G16, Gopro Hero 3+, iPhone 5s. Hasselblad 500C/M, Sony PXW-FS7

ICT Consultant, Photographer, Video producer, Scuba diver and underwater explorer, Nature & humanitarian documentary producer

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Posted · Original PosterOP

Adding a couple more interesting videos, this time on recording audio.

 

 

 

 


Guide: DSLR or Video camera?, Guide: Film/Photo makers' useful resources, Guide: Lenses, a quick primer

Nikon D4, Nikon D800E, Fuji X-E2, Canon G16, Gopro Hero 3+, iPhone 5s. Hasselblad 500C/M, Sony PXW-FS7

ICT Consultant, Photographer, Video producer, Scuba diver and underwater explorer, Nature & humanitarian documentary producer

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Posted · Original PosterOP

Adding a list of YouTube channels that may be worth exploring and perhaps following, feel free to add your suggestions here if you think I missed any worthy channels.


Guide: DSLR or Video camera?, Guide: Film/Photo makers' useful resources, Guide: Lenses, a quick primer

Nikon D4, Nikon D800E, Fuji X-E2, Canon G16, Gopro Hero 3+, iPhone 5s. Hasselblad 500C/M, Sony PXW-FS7

ICT Consultant, Photographer, Video producer, Scuba diver and underwater explorer, Nature & humanitarian documentary producer

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1 hour ago, ALwin said:

Adding a list of YouTube channels that may be worth exploring and perhaps following, feel free to add your suggestions here if you think I missed any worthy channels.

I would add RocketJump Film School, they have some good tips and videos.


So thanks for reading guys, if this post sucked, I'm not sure what you can do, but if you liked it, go 'head and hit that like button, or maybe add me as a friend. Otherwise, go subscribe to LinusTechTips on YouTube, follow them on Twitch, follow @LinusTech on Twitter, and support them by using their affiliate code on Amazon, buying a cool T-shirt, or supporting them directly on this community forum.

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Posted · Original PosterOP
23 hours ago, nickl said:

I would add RocketJump Film School, they have some good tips and videos.

Thinks for this NickL, you've got me hooked on watching their VideoGameHighSchool series.


Guide: DSLR or Video camera?, Guide: Film/Photo makers' useful resources, Guide: Lenses, a quick primer

Nikon D4, Nikon D800E, Fuji X-E2, Canon G16, Gopro Hero 3+, iPhone 5s. Hasselblad 500C/M, Sony PXW-FS7

ICT Consultant, Photographer, Video producer, Scuba diver and underwater explorer, Nature & humanitarian documentary producer

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3 minutes ago, ALwin said:

Thinks for this NickL, you've got me hooked on watching their VideoGameHighSchool series.

VGHS is very well made and the story was well written too. Most of their channel has fun and interesting content.


So thanks for reading guys, if this post sucked, I'm not sure what you can do, but if you liked it, go 'head and hit that like button, or maybe add me as a friend. Otherwise, go subscribe to LinusTechTips on YouTube, follow them on Twitch, follow @LinusTech on Twitter, and support them by using their affiliate code on Amazon, buying a cool T-shirt, or supporting them directly on this community forum.

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Posted · Original PosterOP
1 minute ago, nickl said:

VGHS is very well made and the story was well written too. Most of their channel has fun and interesting content.

Yep, I've seen some of Freddie Wong's other videos.  While they may not have the "fantasy" feel of film (they look closer to reality TV feel), the production quality is pretty great.


Guide: DSLR or Video camera?, Guide: Film/Photo makers' useful resources, Guide: Lenses, a quick primer

Nikon D4, Nikon D800E, Fuji X-E2, Canon G16, Gopro Hero 3+, iPhone 5s. Hasselblad 500C/M, Sony PXW-FS7

ICT Consultant, Photographer, Video producer, Scuba diver and underwater explorer, Nature & humanitarian documentary producer

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Just now, ALwin said:

Yep, I've seen some of Freddie Wong's other videos.  While they may not have the "fantasy" feel of film (they look closer to reality TV feel), the production quality is pretty great.

Totally agree. I think they have some work to do if they want to get to the film work.


So thanks for reading guys, if this post sucked, I'm not sure what you can do, but if you liked it, go 'head and hit that like button, or maybe add me as a friend. Otherwise, go subscribe to LinusTechTips on YouTube, follow them on Twitch, follow @LinusTech on Twitter, and support them by using their affiliate code on Amazon, buying a cool T-shirt, or supporting them directly on this community forum.

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12 hours ago, ALwin said:

Thinks for this NickL, you've got me hooked on watching their VideoGameHighSchool series.


I think that show really sets the bar for "web series", and the show gets even better as it goes on, they shot the later series so much better, better equipment, better editing, better effects etc


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Posted · Original PosterOP
10 hours ago, ShadowCaptain said:

snip

Just finished watching the series finale and now feeling a tad empty.

 

It really does set a high bar for a web series.


Guide: DSLR or Video camera?, Guide: Film/Photo makers' useful resources, Guide: Lenses, a quick primer

Nikon D4, Nikon D800E, Fuji X-E2, Canon G16, Gopro Hero 3+, iPhone 5s. Hasselblad 500C/M, Sony PXW-FS7

ICT Consultant, Photographer, Video producer, Scuba diver and underwater explorer, Nature & humanitarian documentary producer

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47 minutes ago, ALwin said:

Just finished watching the series finale and now feeling a tad empty.

 

It really does set a high bar for a web series.

its better than many TV series that are badly written with shitty effects 


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