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PCPartPicker part list: https://pcpartpicker.com/list/wKTPQZ
CPU: Intel - Pentium Gold G5400 3.7GHz Dual-Core Processor ($62.49 @ OutletPC)
Motherboard: Gigabyte - H310M S2H Micro ATX Motherboard ($55.29 @ SuperBiiz)
Memory: Kingston - FURY 8GB (1 x 8GB) DDR4-2133 Memory ($64.99 @ Amazon)
Storage: Patriot - Burst 480GB 2.5" Solid State Drive ($78.99 @ Amazon)
Video Card: MSI - GeForce GTX 1050 Ti 4GB Video Card ($159.99 @ B&H)
Case: Cooler Master - N200 MicroATX Mini Tower Case ($40.99 @ SuperBiiz)
Power Supply: EVGA - BT 450W 80+ Bronze ATX PSU ($29.99 @ Amazon)
CPU: Pentium Gold is essentially just a i3-7100, I didn’t pick Kaby Lake Pentium becuase limited upgradability.
Mobo: Cheapest Mobo, allows to upgrade to 8700
Ram: 1 ram stick for upgradability, 2133 is max for Pentium.
Storage: 480GB for games and OS.
GPU: 1050 ti thats overclocked, 2 fans for better cooling and OC.
Case: n200 is amazing, see 400$ post.
PSU: see 400$ post.
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From Microsoft's documentation Windows 7, Windows 8 and Windows 10 Telemetry Updates (Diagnostic Tracking).
Under "Microsoft Data Management Service".Quote
The Microsoft Data Management Service routes information to internal cloud storage, where it's compiled into business reports for analysis and research.
Only those who can demonstrate a valid business need can access the telemetry info.
However, we do share business reports with partners that include aggregated, anonymous telemetry information.
Microsoft isn't its own partner. A partner means a 3rd-party. A business agreement with a 3rd-party means a profitable transaction. What Microsoft is saying, in a sterilized PR manner, is that they sell the data they collect through Windows 10 to whoever has the money to pay for it just like Facebook, Google, Amazon, Twitter, do.
A key difference between Microsoft's harvesting of personal data and those other companies' harvesting of personal data, though, is that Microsoft collects data from people's personally-owned OS environments and activities that those individual Windows 10 owners host and pay for the housing, hardware, software, electricity, maintenance of, whereas the other mentioned companies collect data from online services that each of those companies hosts and pays for the housing, hardware, software, electricity, maintenance, of.
From Microsoft's document Configure Windows diagnostic data in your organization, in the "Data use and access" section.Quote
Microsoft may share business reports with OEMs and third party partners
From Microsoft's "privacy statement", in the "Advertising" section.Quote
Microsoft partners with third-party ad companies to help provide some of our advertising services, and we also allow other third-party ad companies to display advertisements on our sites. These third parties may place cookies on your computer and collect data about your online activities across websites or online services.
From Microsoft's "privacy statement", in the "Reasons We Share Personal Data" section.Quote
We may also disclose personal data as part of a corporate transaction such as a merger or sale of assets.
If Microsoft opts to think of the personal data that Microsoft has harvested through Windows 10 as theirs to sell (a position I think is legally indefensible and amounting to unjust enrichment), then Microsoft would count that data as their assets. And so, a "sale of assets" as a corporate transaction would describe the sale of collected personal and personally-owned (by the individual Windows 10 instance owners the data is harvested from) data for the sake of Microsoft's profit.
Additional thoughts and resources
While Microsoft claims in one case that the data they share with 3rd-party companies has been made anonymous due to aggregation, it should be noted that Microsoft does not claim the data they share is exclusively anonymous. And in some situations, such as sharing data with law enforcement (which Microsoft states they do elsewhere in the "privacy statement"), it would logically not be anonymous. So, Microsoft hasn't given a clear answer as to how much of the data that it shares is anonymous, and how much isn't, and has only offered that some data which they share has been made anonymous.
It should also be remembered that Microsoft originally claimed that all of the data they collect is anonymous to begin with, but the year-long Dutch DPA investigation revealed that claim to be a lie and that all data harvested by Microsoft is attached with identifiers cataloguing it according to the person, the device, the network, and more that it came from, so that all collected data on each person can form a comprehensive virtual profile of that person:
"It turns out that Microsoft’s operating system follows about every step you take on your computer. That results in an intrusive profile of yourself. What does that mean? Do people know about this, do they want this? Microsoft needs to give users a fair opportunity to decide about this themselves." - Wilbert Tomesen, vice-chairman of the Dutch DPA
"In our full report (only available in Dutch unfortunately), we deal extensively with the points of forced install. We also explain why all the telemetry data collected by Microsoft are indeed personal data, and certainly not anonymous, regardless of the view of MS that they would only relate to the system/be 'mere' technical data." - Dutch DPA
For more information about how data collected in Windows 10 is tagged according to the type of account that is logged into a Windows 10 session, see this post:
An incomplete documentation of the minimum data that Microsoft harvests from all devices running a copy of Windows 10 Home or Pro as of version 1803 of Windows 10 can be viewed on Microsoft's website. Microsoft's website documentation of data that's harvested at the "Basic" setting is revealed to be incomplete when comparing the transmitted data reported by Microsoft's Diagnostic Data Viewer to the data that is documented on Microsoft's website.
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Most of the bottom half of this post is a paste of a message I sent to Steam support following the seemingly-bullying actions of a Steam Discussions moderator, who falsely claimed that Steam rents / leases games through their service and doesn't sell them, and who couldn't stand anybody telling them they're wrong and likes to lock any threads where people say otherwise.
To be clear, that Steam Discussions moderator's assertion is wrong, and top courts covering a sizeable amount of the world's population have ruled that they're wrong, and Valve themselves have also explicitly stated that they sell, not rent or lease, games to those people who purchase them through their Steam service (I've included that information in the second-half of this post). So, here is...
Software licenses, purchasing and owning software 101:
- A license is a right to use a property or intellectual property that belongs to somebody else. When you read "this software is licensed, not sold" in a software EULA, whether it's for Windows 10 or a game or an application, "this software" refers to the software Intellectual Property and not the copy of that intellectual property that you've purchased via a software license. Software licenses and the instances of a software intellectual property that they represent are indeed and obviously sold. Both of the following phrases are simultaneously true: This software (IP) is licensed, not sold; This software (instance / license) is sold, not licensed or leased.
- All the mass-produced items you've bought, including your clothing, your vehicles, your TV, your computer hardware, are licensed instances of the intellectual property (IP) for those things. When you purchase any of those things, you aren't purchasing the intellectual property (IP) and so you don't become entitled to mass-produce, to market, to receive profits from the first-sale of any of those things, and you don't gain any ownership of the patents for the patented technology in those things. But you are purchasing a one-off copy of the IP of those things, and upon the point of sale of the instances of those IPs there is a transfer of ownership over those instances and you become the sole owner of that instance of that IP. This is exactly the same with software as it is with physical goods - you own your instance and have full property rights over it.
- There are perpetual software licenses and there are subscription software licenses. A perpetual license is non-exhaustive, meaning that the right it grants is eternal, forever-lasting, and never expires. A subscription license is a duration-limited right to access a software or service. All the most common software including games, OSes, and programs are perpetual licenses. Some games that are sold via perpetual licenses, like MMOs, require an additional service subscription to use the base software with a publisher's own servers, with the software not being functional on its own due to the servers handling the game world's AI, and other systems. Steam itself is a subscription service, but the games sold through Steam are perpetual licensed software.
- A perpetual license is a product, and whenever a perpetual license is sold it undergoes transfer of ownership upon the point of sale. Whoever owns a perpetual license owns the instance of software it grants a right to use the intellectual property (IP) of. After the transfer of ownership of a perpetual licensed software, the seller of the license no longer holds any rightful say over anything regarding that non-reproduceable instance of software represented by its perpetual license. This legal fact is not always honoured by perpetual license software sellers (for example, Microsoft with Windows 10 automatic updates and data-harvesting) and it can take lawsuits to force software companies to comply with their legal and moral obligations and to respect the property of others and not violate that property, including software, system, and data property.
- EULAs are not laws but are subject to laws. And corporations do not possess law-making powers. Many EULAs are not written by legal experts but by people who just see the formats of previous EULAs and make assumptions from seeing those about what the nature of an EULA is, and then just copy and paste the terms they like the sound of from other EULAs. And many EULAs even from large companies like Microsoft (for example, the Windows 10 EULA) contain made-up and non legally-enforceable stuff in them. EULAs are also used to psychologically ward off potential challenges and to provoke the type of customer behaviour a publisher wishes there to be, by claiming and suggesting publisher rights and powers beyond what actually exist.
- EULAs are also used as a tool of manipulation to psychologically ward off potential challenges and to provoke the type of customer behaviour a publisher wishes there to be, by claiming, or, by phrasing things (without literally saying them) in a way that suggests publisher rights and powers beyond what actually exist. There are countless examples of this, but one very familiar one is "this software is licensed, not sold", which plays on the semantics of "software". Another example is anything that is followed by a phrase that says to the effect of of 'except where regional law permits otherwise'.
- Ownership over a thing is what establishes one's decision-making authority over the thing. To sell something is to relinquish it as one's property and so to relinquish all of one's decision-making authority over that thing and to transfer decision-making authority over that thing to the person who bought the thing. Anything sold via a perpetual (meaning non-exhausting, eternal, lasting-forever) license is a product that becomes the sole possession of whoever purchases it, and upon its purchase all property rights including decision-making authority transfer from the seller to the purchaser. And then the seller no longer has any rightful say over anything regarding that non-reproduceable instance of software represented by its perpetual license.
- Both the European Union and Australia's highest courts have definitively ruled that software sold, including via licenses, represents a good (not a service) and that any purchaser of a perpetual software license becomes the exclusive owner over that instance of the software, just as when they purchase any physical good. And there hasn't been a ruling made by a comparable court anywhere in the world that contradicts the European Union and Australia's top court rulings.
- In the USA, there have been some inconsistent lower court rulings on software licenses. But they have not all been in agreement with each other and lower court rulings and don't apply to all of the USA but only to the specific districts that the rulings were made in. A specific matter of software ownership has never gone to the USA's Supreme Court and it's likely that software publishers would prefer that it doesn't, because in all likeliness the verdict will be the same as it was in the EU and in Australia. Because this matter has never gone to the USA's Supreme Court and because regional court verdicts have conflicted with each other in their conclusions, it is baseless for anyone to claim that people in the USA don't own their purchased software.
- However, on March 19, 2013, the USA's Supreme Court ruled that people in the USA and elsewhere are entitled to resell their copyrighted goods (which includes purchased software / software licenses) without the copyright-holder's permission, in accordance with the first-sale doctrine which states that a seller retains no decision-making authority over a product once they have sold it to someone else. Therefore, any claim in an EULA that a license is non-transferable between people is deemed invalid in the USA just as it is in Europe.
Here is some excepted content from my message to Steam support proving that games are sold through Steam and not rented or leased, and that Valve has officially accepted in court that they sell games and that the games they sell are the owned property of those who purchase them through Steam, with all property rights for games sold through Steam belonging to Valve's customers and not Valve.
-------------------- start of excerpt --------------------
Here's the message that the Australian court has required Valve to display for 12 months following the loss of Valve's appeal of a ruling against the company concerning Valve's refund policy for Australians:
And here's that message still on the Steam website:
The message presented by Steam says “When you buy video games from Valve Corporation”, which clearly expresses that people buy games from Valve through Steam, and that they don’t rent or lease them.
Here's the full verdict from the Australian court:
The verdict carefully examines whether games sold through Steam are goods and concludes that the games sold through Steam are goods and not services, and that property laws apply to the goods (games) sold through Steam, and that the property rights rest with the purchaser of the games who is not Valve but is whichever of Steam's service subscribers have bought games through Steam.
The European Union's top court has also ruled on the matter for over half a billion people that software licenses are property and goods that are sold and therefore bought, and that property rights over the instances of software that software licenses represent therefore belong to the purchasers of those licenses:
The EU court also verified that EULAs are not laws, but are subject to laws. If what a publisher writes in an EULA is unreasonable, it risks invalidating the entire EULA.
A German court has also ruled that games bought through Steam are the properties of those who purchased them through Steam – but also ruled that Valve, being a private company, is not obligated to build into their service design any facilitation for people to transfer their games out of their Steam accounts and into other people’s accounts for the purpose of reselling them.
In the Australian case's verdict, Valve has explicitly accepted that games sold through Steam are goods, and that Steam customers who purchase games through Steam are the sole owners of those games:
“The second issue is whether there was a “supply of goods” by Valve. Valve accepted that if “goods” were provided by it to consumers then the goods had been “supplied” (ts 218).”
“The legal meaning of “goods” can be analogised to the strict definition of “property” which is “a description of a legal relationship with a thing”: Yanner v Eaton  HCA 53; (1999) 201 CLR 351, 365-366  (Gleeson CJ, Gaudron, Kirby, and Hayne JJ describing the word “property”).”
“137 Valve supplied consumers with a good.”
-------------------- end of excerpt --------------------
I hope that all software owners become aware of the fact that they personally own the software they've purchased licenses for and that claims they do not are baseless and urban myth at best, and at worst are deliberate malicious disinformation and corporate propaganda.
A lot of the abuses and software vandalism that software owners have experienced and are currently experiencing at the hands of publishers like Microsoft have only come about because software owners were ignorant and naive of the fact that they do own their software just like you own yours. So, if you want those publisher abuses to stop, then use this information to stamp out misguided disinformation claims of people not owning their software anywhere you see those claims appearing.
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Well, that’s not so great.
You might have heard that Apple recently refreshed the MacBook Pros with the new 8th-generation Intel Coffee Lake CPUs, including the top-of-the-line Core i9 8950HK. And you may have also heard that the very same configuration generates so much heat to the point where the MacBook’s chassis and cooling system could simply not handle and resulted in the CPU being unable to maintain base clocks. Obviously, this is quite a big issue and it really begs the question of why Apple decided to offer a $300 option for a better CPU when the chassis and cooling solution may not be up to snuff and can result in performance being worse than the i7 from the 8th and even 7th generation.
But why exactly is fitting such a CPU in a chassis as compact as the MacBook Pro such a risky proposition? It’s a lot to do with space and heat. Let me explain;
To do work, a CPU requires electrical energy, which it receives from the computer’s power supply unit. When it receives electrical energy, the CPU is then able to perform any potential given task, but it also generates heat as a byproduct. The amount of heat generated depends on factors such as workload, utilization, core count, clockspeed and TDP among others, though it is assumed that the higher-end the chip is, the more heat it will generate.
Heat is a form of energy, meaning it cannot be destroyed, only transferred or converted. Heat is transferred in one of 3 ways;
Conduction: Transfer through contact
Convection: Transfer of heat through motion
Radiation: Transfer through electromagnetic rays
We’ll be focusing particularly on radiation for this one.
Most computers utilize active cooling, which utilizes fans and heatsinks alongside heatpipes (higher end solutions use liquid or vapor chambers) to whisk heat away from the processor and uses thermal compound between the cooler and processor to improve conductivity. Some laptops also utilize passive cooling, which uses the chassis to aid in cooling. The MacBook Pro for instance, utilizes a mix of both.
However, herein lies the problem with the MacBook Pro with Core i9 alongside other similarly equipped notebooks with a similar form factor like the refreshed Dell XPS15; space.
While these laptops utilize active cooling, not all of that heat is conducted and whisked away by the cooling system. Some amount will be radiated throughout the chassis. Not much of an issue on big desktop replacements and actual desktops due to their large internal volume but in thin machines, there's far less space to radiate that heat, which is why some machines like the aforementioned MacBook Pro and Razer Blade Pro w/ GTX 1080 have very high surface temperatures. This also translates to higher internal temperatures which increases the potential for the CPU to throttle.
A double whammy for the MacBook Pro and others like the XPS15 is the choice of cooling system. To recap, the Core I9 8950HK is a high-end 6C 12T CPU which has a 2.9GHz base clock but goes up to 4.8GHz when turbo boosted on single-treaded tasks if power and temperature limits allow. The CPU has a 45W TDP but is also known to consume up to 150W of power when in its boosted state. Obviously, that's a very power-hungry CPU and that also translates into a lot of heat, hence why the CPU is usually seen in big, bulky gaming laptops (and many of those struggle to maintain turbo but can maintain base). It's not uncommon for these laptops alongside some 8750H laptops to gain upgraded cooling systems to aid in whisking heat away, such as the refreshed ASUS RoG STRIX GL line which has a significantly upgraded cooling system to accommodate the beefier CPU.
The issue with the MacBook and XPS is that while the cooling system is (barely) adequate to handle a Kaby Lake 4C 8T Core i7 CPU without throttling below base, the cooling solution itself does not appear to have been upgraded for the 6C 12T Coffee Lake parts, especially for the 8950HK. I'm not going to make assumptions here since I probably don't know as much as the engineers who did these, but conventional wisdom would tell me that to handle a CPU that is much more powerful and generates more heat as a consequence, the cooling system should be upgraded to better handle the increased thermal load. Sadly, that doesn't appear to be the case for both the MacBook and XPS especially since the latter has had issues with VRM throttling. It's also worth noting that despite the throttling, the XPS's cooling system is better able to handle the heat load, although the VRM temperatures are still a bit of a concern.
There is one outlier that we haven't talked about yet; liquid metal. In some laptops, applying liquid metal thermal paste can significantly improve temperatures to the point where throttling disappears. The reason why I haven't yet mentioned it is because these laptops are very new and haven't have had LM repasted. There is a chance that LM can improve thermals, but not much info is out there.
Bottom line is this. Thin machines combined with super beefy CPUs will always run into heating issues particularly due to their limited internal volume for better cooling and extra space for heat to radiate. It's one of the reasons why I've kept saying that the whole thinness race should really end if we want these super powerful CPUs to run in laptops without a lot of compromise. The MacBook Pro is already in ultra portable territory when it comes to size and that combined with a power-hungry Core i9 and a cooling system that is unable to keep the fury in check results in a machine that just runs too hot to maintain base.
I don't think an i9 should have been offered in the first place if it was found that it could have throttled to the point of being worse than a last generation product. While I'm all for increased portability, there's a balance to be had and I think Apple (and Dell plus Razer) probably tipped the portability scale a bit too far.
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Koala Gene Promises Chlamydia Treatment
So a lot of you may have seen the news recently on a group of Australian scientists decoding the genome of the Koalas, which is a fairly large 26,000 genes. To put that in perspective Homo Sapiens has around 28,000 genes and one of the most studies model organisms, which are organisms we use instead of humans, is Bakers Yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisae) has around 5300 to 5400 genes. I should probably add to this, and if you are looking at this blog you may be familiar that many regulatory genes of yeast are orthologs with human genes - and in most instances processes controlled by one gene may be controlled by two in humans. This is taken in instance with the NPR2 gene, which has a well known role in autophagy and has the human ortholog NPRL2 - and coincidentally is also a Tumour Suppressor gene as C6 in Koalas. So C6 as a gene may have many orthologs in humans and so we could potentially unlock more than one target for cancer treatment.
The gene in quesiton in Koalas, is activated in infants in the womb and early development of koalas. We have a gene that up-regulates immune response as part of the complement system (For those not so informed the complement system is part of our antibodies and these molecules float around in our bloodstream and activate during different responses, for instance the IgE antibody activates mast cells to provide a histamine response to cause inflammation). So in this case the C6 gene is a precursor for this complement system and helps gain an innate immune response.
Unlocking the aspect of the C6 gene in the Koala genome and activating the gene throughout adulthood may provide an aspect for treating the Chlamydia epidemic. This is just the start for the five-year project in decoding the Koala genome. The main direction of the Koala genome project is to find out how Koalas are able to eat the Eukalyptus leaves, which are fairly common in Australia but only Koalas are able to digest the leaves. As Chlamydia is a large problem for Koalas, and the only treatment available at the moment is Antibiotics - which due to their unique metabolism are very hard to get an accurate dose, you have to give them a large dose, but at the same time it's hard on their microbiota.
I'm looking forward to seeing the results of this and hope to lend a hand to their work. I'll follow it very closely.
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This post contains an analysis of the v2 G-Sync module's features and behavior. This analysis was performed with a Dell S2417DG, but is not intended to be a review of the monitor itself.
Input / Output
This G-Sync module supports a single DisplayPort 1.2 input and a single HDMI 1.4 input. G-Sync is only supported over DisplayPort.
This monitor supports up to 165 Hz at 2560×1440 through DisplayPort. The timing parameters used by this monitor can be viewed here: https://linustechtips.com/main/gallery/album/4127-dell-s2417dg-edid-and-timing-parameters/
The DisplayPort EDID on this monitor reports a vertical frequency range of 30–165 Hz and a maximum bandwidth of 19.2 Gbit/s (640 Mpx/s with 8 bpc RGB color), just enough for the maximum format (2560×1440 @ 165 Hz 8 bpc RGB), which operates at a pixel rate of 635 Mpx/s, requiring 19.07 Gbit/s of bandwidth (about 88% of the 21.6 Gbit/s provided by the DisplayPort 1.2 interface).
The HDMI EDID reports a vertical frequency range of 24–60 Hz, and a maximum bandwidth of 9.0 Gbit/s (300 Mpx/s with 8 bpc RGB color). This indicates support for around 88% of the 10.2 Gbit/s limit specified by the HDMI 1.4 standard. The maximum format (2560×1440 @ 60 Hz 8 bpc RGB) uses standard CVT-RB timings by default, for a pixel rate of 241.5 Mpx/s and 7.24 Gbit/s bandwidth consumed, about 80% of the monitor's reported maximum.
Unfortunately, the G-Sync module carries the same behavioral flaws that other DisplayPort monitors have. When the monitor is powered down, the operating system considers the display disconnected, and will re-shuffle application windows and icons to the remaining screens. However, this particular monitor has a "Power Saving" option which, when disabled, prevents this behavior. When "Power Saving" is off, the monitor can be powered down without disconnecting from the operating system, and applications will not be moved around. I don't know whether other G-Sync monitors have a similar menu option.
This behavior does not occur with DVI or HDMI (in general, but also including the HDMI port on the G-Sync module), since DVI and HDMI supply a small amount of power from the source to read the sink EDID of the connected device even when it is powered down, which allows the operating system to still recognize the display. DisplayPort does not allow power to be transmitted from source to sink, as the DP_PWR pin is only intended for use by attached devices (such as adapters). Presumably, when the "Power Saving" option on this monitor is disabled, the monitor keeps its internal control chip powered up to some extent even when the monitor is off.
The HDMI port on the v2 G-Sync module has a flat 60 Hz limit regardless of resolution or bandwidth. While many 144 Hz monitors (particularly older ones) are limited to 60 Hz at full resolution over HDMI, this is usually due to a simple bandwidth limit of the hardware.
For example, in older 1080p 144 Hz monitors like the ASUS VG248QE, the manufacturers chose to implement HDMI controllers that were only capable of up to ≈150 Mpx/s, just enough for 60 Hz at 1080p. However, since it was only a matter of limited bandwidth, higher refresh rates over HDMI could at least be achieved at lower resolutions. Usually something like 720p (which has less than half as many pixels as 1080p) would be enough to get 120 Hz.
However, the G-Sync module seems to have a software restriction which actually enforces a strict 60 Hz limit over HDMI at all resolutions, regardless of bandwidth. The monitor does work at up to 60 Hz at 2560×1440 over HDMI, so it supports at least that much bandwidth, but when attempting higher refresh rates at a lower resolution such as 1080p 120 Hz, 100 Hz, and even 75 Hz, it only results in a black screen despite the fact that 1080p 100 Hz and 75 Hz use less bandwidth than 1440p 60 Hz.
This limitation is not due to GPU scaling as one might suspect (which would scale the image to 1440p prior to transmitting it across the cable, which would mean the transmitted video is always 1440p no matter what resolution is selected, and would therefore be subject to the monitor's maximum refresh frequency for 1440p video, which is 60 Hz when connected via HDMI). Although display-side scaling is not supported over DisplayPort for some mysterious reason, display scaling is supported over HDMI and I made sure it was set when I tested >60 Hz formats.
This is an unfortunate and seemingly needless software restriction.
Can AMD graphics cards run a G-Sync monitor at full refresh rate?
There has been some concern in the past as to whether G-Sync monitors will be limited to 60 Hz when using AMD graphics cards. Unsurprisingly, there are not very many people with the means to test this, as most people with G-Sync monitors don't have AMD graphics cards laying around or vice versa, and there don't seem to be any reviewers who have seen any reason to test it either (at least to my knowledge).
Fortunately, I have an AMD RX 480 on hand, so I have tested it and found that this monitor (the Dell S2417DG) works perfectly fine up to its maximum overclock of 1440p 165 Hz on AMD cards. G-Sync, of course, is not supported, but there does not appear to be any restriction requiring you to have an NVIDIA graphics card to achieve the full resolution and refresh rate of a G-Sync monitor.
G-Sync behavior at low frame rates
G-Sync operates from 0 Hz to the maximum refresh rate of the monitor (in this case, 0–165 Hz). Some people are under the impression that G-Sync has a "minimum range" below which it does not operate, such as 30–165 Hz. This is untrue, and comes from people incorrectly assuming that G-Sync stops operating once the framerate drops below the monitor's physical operating limits. Although monitors do have a minimum refresh frequency, usually around 24–30 Hz, G-Sync does continue to operate below the monitor's physical limit by duplicating frames. This technique is visually indistinguishable from single long frames, so there are no disadvantages caused by this behavior. Using this technique, G-Sync can operate at any framerate below the monitor's maximum refresh frequency, even at extremely low framerates.
I demonstrate this on the S2417DG here, where you can see G-Sync continuing to operate at around 18.5 FPS:
Does G-Sync work through a DisplayPort daisy-chain?
No. I tested this monitor daisy-chained from a Dell U2414H. The S2417DG was recognized, and worked at up to 1440p 120 Hz (higher refresh rates are not available since it exceeds the bandwidth limitations of DP 1.2 when combined with the 1080p 60 Hz U2414H). However, it was not recognized as a G-Sync monitor, and the G-Sync (and ULMB) options were missing from the NVIDIA control panel.
Does G-Sync work through a DisplayPort MST hub?
No. I tested this monitor through an Accell K088B-004B two-port DisplayPort 1.2 MST hub. The S2417DG was recognized, and worked at up to 1440p 165 Hz. However, it was not recognized as a G-Sync monitor, and the G-Sync (and ULMB) options were missing from the NVIDIA control panel.
ULMB (Ultra-Low Motion Blur) is NVIDIA's implementation of backlight strobing built in to G-Sync monitors. Backlight strobing is a form of reducing perceived motion blur by eliminating the "sample-and-hold" behavior of LCDs. It makes the screen behave in a manner more similar to CRTs, where the image fades to black shortly after it is drawn. This changes the way that the human eye tracks motion, resulting in less perceived motion blur. Backlight strobing does reduce the maximum brightness of the monitor significantly, since the monitor only spends a fraction of the time illuminated, which reduces the total light output of the monitor.
Similar to PWM brightness control, backlight strobing can cause noticeable flickering if the strobing is done at low frequencies. Usually 85 Hz is the recommended minimum for strobing, which is why 85 Hz was a standard refresh frequency in the days of CRTs, where it seems most people stop noticing flickering at or above that level.
PWM brightness control does not achieve the same effect as backlight strobing because the pulses are not synchronized with the monitor's refresh operations, and PWM brightness control usually operates at a much higher frequency than backlight strobing does.
NVIDIA's backlight strobing implementation, ULMB, is only available at 85 Hz, 100 Hz, and 120 Hz. It cannot be activated at other refresh frequenies. ULMB uses single strobes, so at 85 Hz refresh rate, the backlight strobes at 85 Hz, and so forth.
For technical reasons, ULMB is not compatible with variable refresh technologies like G-Sync. The user must choose between either ULMB or G-Sync, they cannot be used at the same time.
Relationship between ULMB Pulse Width setting and actual pulse width
Monitors often give settings in unitless quantities. The most universal example of this is the "brightness" setting, which most monitors allow you to adjust between "0" and "100", but with no indication of what these numbers actually represent, other than arbitrary relative values.
Since these settings usually go between 0 and 100, many people use the term "percent" when discussing these settings (i.e. "I set the monitor to 50% brightness"). However, some people will recognize that these numbers do not actually represent a percentage of the maximum setting, otherwise a brightness setting of "0" would leave the monitor completely dark. This being the case, a brightness setting of 50 is not actually half as bright as the 100 setting and so forth; in reality, the setting follows an arbitrary (and in some cases, non-linear) scale which differs from display to display, so it can be informative to measure the actual values of these types of settings.
In this case, the subject of discussion is the ULMB pulse width setting. Naturally, the "100" setting does not equate to a 100% pulse width (which would mean no strobing at all), so I decided to measure the strobe at various settings to determine the actual pulse width, and to see how it reacts when the setting is adjusted. Since ULMB is available at three different refresh frequencies, I performed the tests on all three to see if that affected the behavior too.
The ULMB Pulse Width setting does behave differently at different refresh rates; neither the pulse width nor the duty cycle remains the same. The setting is variable between "10" and "100", in increments of 1. The pulse width responds linearly to the setting, meaning that each decrease of 1 in the setting decreases the pulse width by the same amount every time. When set to 100, the pulse width is twice as long as when set to 50, and ten times as long as when set to 10.
Pulse width is often represented in terms of the duty cycle, which is the pulse width as a percentage of the total period. For example, at 100 Hz a single period would be ¹⁄₁₀₀ seconds or 10 ms. A duty cycle of 20% would mean 20% of that period (2 ms) would be spent with the backlight active, and the remaining 80% (8 ms) would be spent off.
- At 120 Hz, the pulse width was configurable between 2.22% (185 µs) at pulse width setting "10", and 22.1% (1.84 ms) at pulse width setting "100".
- At 100 Hz, the pulse width was configurable between 2.44% (244 µs) at "10", and 24.1% (2.41 ms) at "100".
- At 85 Hz, the pulse width was configurable between 3.03% (356 µs) at "10" and 30.1% (3.55 ms) at "100".
Actual measurements at every interval of 10 may be viewed here: https://linustechtips.com/main/gallery/album/4129-dell-s2417dg-ulmb-pulse-width-measurements/
Brightness reduction when using ULMB
Lowering the strobe duty cycle will reduce the total light output of the monitor, which reduces the overall brightness. Brightness is directly proportional to strobe duty cycle; cutting the duty cycle in half will cut the brightness in half. Since the duty cycle scales linearly with the monitor's ULMB Pulse Width setting, the brightness will also scale linearly with it.
Since the monitor uses DC brightness control, it has a "100% duty cycle" when not in ULMB mode. Activating ULMB will reduce the brightness significantly from the monitor's maximum, since the duty cycle will drop to 30% or less. This is not as much of a problem as it might sound, since the monitor has a powerful backlight capable of excessively high brightness (well over 400 cd/m2), presumably for this exact reason. Even 20% of maximum brightness will be enough for most users, and most people will not have the brightness set anywhere near maximum in normal mode. The monitor also keeps separate brightness settings when switching between normal and ULMB mode.
Can ULMB be used with AMD graphics cards?
No. The ULMB settings in the monitor's internal menu are greyed out in any situation where the monitor isn't recognized as a G-Sync monitor, including when the monitor is attached to an AMD graphics card. ULMB must be enabled through the NVIDIA control panel, and the monitor will not show up in the NVIDIA control panel unless the monitor is plugged into an NVIDIA graphics card.
Does ULMB work through a DisplayPort daisy-chain?
No. I tested this monitor daisy-chained from a Dell U2414H. The S2417DG was recognized, and worked at up to 1440p 120 Hz (higher refresh rates are not available since it exceeds the bandwidth limitations of DP 1.2 when combined with the 1080p 60 Hz U2414H). However, it was not recognized as a G-Sync monitor, and the G-Sync (and ULMB) options were missing from the NVIDIA control panel. The ULMB settings were also greyed out in the monitor's internal menu.
Does ULMB work through a DisplayPort MST hub?
No. I tested this monitor through an Accell K088B-004B two-port DisplayPort 1.2 MST hub. The S2417DG was recognized, and worked at up to 1440p 165 Hz. However, it was not recognized as a G-Sync monitor, and the G-Sync (and ULMB) options were missing from the NVIDIA control panel. The ULMB settings were also greyed out in the monitor's internal menu.
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Just looked at my new shift at Amazon, and am thinking about applying to either Lowe's or Home Depot for a better shift (with possibly better pay). This would be nice, since those companies might be more flexible with shift hours than Amazon, and that would definitely help with being able to keep a job during the school year. I really would like to have stable income during the year, and leaving Amazon would kinda kill that. If I could get a higher hourly rate from a different company (higher than 12.50 USD/hour), that would also really be beneficial to any future projects I might have. So, I'm looking for a second job, that could (in time) possibly overtake my current job. Risky, but could be rewarding if I pull this off right during the Summer (non-School) months I have left. Gotta send in a few applications to see what happens if I decide to go through with this. Time to see if anyone's still hiring college students in mid-Summer...
On a side-note, the GPU purchase will have to wait until I've saved enough. I get ~100 USD/per week from Amazon (after taxes and other school-based deductions). Another reason to possibly switch jobs.
Sorry it wasn't done yesterday as promised, there were a few things I needed to confirm before I could post it!
Sorry for the sounds of the bike at around 3:50, window was open and this was the third attempt at recording!
Cancer Research: https://fundraise.cancerresearchuk.org/page/adams-5k-run-to-beat-cancer
Facebook Page: https://www.facebook.com/adamcarderhealthandfitness/
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Today, I was able to fly in both the morning and afternoon.
Our morning flight was delayed by an hour due to fog/mist however it did clear and thus we were able to fly. We did 7 circuits however they were all low passes. Circuits were suprsingly less demanding that I had expected.
In the afternoon flight, I did my first landing! We did 3 touch n go before we exited the circuit to go over what to do in an engine failure. We then came back to do a shortfield landing.
My first (ever) touch n go was slightly rough but it got better on the two touch n go afterward. For the shortfield landing, I was coming in a little too low, increased the throttle too much and lets just say that it was an incredibly hard landing however as saying goes, "if its a landing that you can walk away, its a good landing"...
With today completed, this means that I can now do everything from startup to shutdown, as long as we ignore navigation and emergencies.
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When you install an application using some install process, you'd think a lot is going on in the background aside from copying files to the install location. But for the most part, that's all it's really doing. Depending on how the application was designed and programmed, it'll be looking for files or libraries in certain places. So if said files or libraries don't already exist, the installer is making sure they get put in the right place. The only other thing that happens is to write some entry in the application manager that this application exists how to uninstall it. All uninstalling then is it's the reverse of this process. However, the uninstaller may not remove everything the installer put on, because some of those files may be libraries that other applications might use. An example of this is if the installer put on a version of Microsoft's Visual C++ runtime. The actual app uninstaller won't remove that because it's a library.
On that note, if all of the support files for the application are in place and anything extra it needs comes with the application, then there's really no need to "install" it. The application won't care it's not in the application manager nor will the OS (unless it's locked down for some reason).
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DMVPN is mentioned in the official CCNA guide and also in the CCNP (specifically Routing and Switching I'm talking here) but it isn't really listed to configure in the exam topics for the CCNP route. The exam blueprints state you need to 'Describe' but if you've ever attempted a Cisco exam before then you might know, that doesn't mean you might get a question related to the configuration side. We are going to be looking at a simple lab with some theory behind DMVPN without the encryption, but a basic explanation what DMVPN is:
DMVPN (Dynamic Multipoint VPN) isn't a protocol within itself, but is crafted by the various protocols used together to achieve what DMVPN does. It allows us to create a hub-spoke like topology with spokes being able to dynamically form a VPN between other remote spokes and the Hub. The protocols that create DMVPN:
-A dynamic routing protocol (common: EIGRP or OSPF)
IPSec is also a common protocol used but it isn't actually a requirement (although it is preferred since running plain GRE isn't the best idea...). Technically you don't actually need to run a dynamic routing protocol and have static routes but again it is very common to see a dynamic routing protocol. Before moving onto a basic introduction to configuration and the design, DMVPN can scale very large (thousands of remote sites) and not only allows our spokes with dynamic IP addresses to participate in the design but also the configuration is very effective instead of creating static tunnels for loads of remote sites.
The single hub topology design
This topology will use the internet as the underlay to transport our packets, although we will create an 'overlay' using multipoint GRE to carry our site traffic (10.x.x.x) using EIGRP. In DMVPN, we use the terms 'underlay' and 'overlay' a bit similar to GRE over IPSec where IPSec is used as the protocol to transport GRE otherwise we will have no protection. GRE is normally used to transport different traffic since IPSec itself can only carry unicast traffic, it you want to take advantage of multicast and other types of traffic then you can encapsulate with GRE and then send it over the IPSec tunnel as a unicast packet. In our case, we could even just use IPSec without GRE and just define the neighbors in our routing protocol so our updates and hellos etc.. are sent via unicast instead of multicast, that bypasses the learning and fun we'll see in this post!
Why not use typical GRE point to point tunnels? Firstly, this defeats the whole purpose what DMVPN achieves, it allows us to manage our design with ease and dynamically form tunnels with remote spokes and with the HUB. If we have a static tunnel configuration, think about it we need X amount of tunnels configured on the HUB depending how many spokes are in our design and then a tunnel from the spoke to the HUB, and then finally a tunnel from SpokeX to every single other spoke that exist if you need Spoke-Spoke communication without traffic traversing through the HUB.
Multipoint GRE allows a single tunnel configuration to then dynamically form tunnels without the need of loads of 'interface tunnel x' in the configuration. It can take the configuration of the single interface and then use NHRP to dynamically form tunnels to other routers.
Next Hop resolution protocol is the protocol in DMVPN which makes it possible for spokes to register their public IP address according to their tunnel interface IP address whether the public facing interface is static or dynamic. Everyone explains NHRP like ARP but on the internet instead of within a local LAN. The protocol works as a server-client model where clients would point to a server to register their address (more specifically their NBMA aka Non Broadcast Multi Access). We will look at NHRP in more detail not only with configuration but also verification commands and more theory when we actually see outputs.
Dynamic Routing Protocol
As I've mentioned, a routing protocol isn't actually a requirement for DMVPN although as you may know, a dynamic routing protocol makes routing more scalable when working with a large amount of subnets/networks. We will be using EIGRP in this example.
There are many design guides and generic guides on the web which show different methods such as using an IPSec profile directly in IOS or even having a firewall which offloads the resources for IPSec tunnels and then a router performing the GRE/NHRP etc.. In our example, I won't be using IPSec since the ipsec configuration is straight forward to lab but also very easy to setup using preshared keys, it gets more interesting when you begin to introduce a PKI server for certificates and IPSec enrollment instead of using keys/shared secrets...
Starting with the basic configuration of all the routers so you can follow along:Spoiler
!HUB interface Loopback0 ip address 10.0.0.1 255.255.255.0 ! interface Loopback1 ip address 10.0.1.1 255.255.255.0 ! interface Loopback2 ip address 10.0.2.1 255.255.255.0 ! interface Loopback3 ip address 10.0.3.1 255.255.255.0 ! interface GigabitEthernet0/0 ip address 126.96.36.199 255.255.255.252 ! ip route 0.0.0.0 0.0.0.0 188.8.131.52 !ISP interface GigabitEthernet0/0 ip address 184.108.40.206 255.255.255.252 ! interface GigabitEthernet0/1 ip address 220.127.116.11 255.255.255.252 ! interface GigabitEthernet0/2 ip address 18.104.22.168 255.255.255.252 ! interface GigabitEthernet0/3 ip address 22.214.171.124 255.255.255.252 !Spoke-1 interface Loopback0 ip address 10.10.1.1 255.255.255.0 ! interface GigabitEthernet0/0 ip address 126.96.36.199 255.255.255.252 ! ip route 0.0.0.0 0.0.0.0 188.8.131.52 !Spoke-2 interface Loopback0 ip address 10.10.2.1 255.255.255.0 ! interface GigabitEthernet0/0 ip address 184.108.40.206 255.255.255.252 ! ip route 0.0.0.0 0.0.0.0 220.127.116.11 !Spoke-3 interface Loopback0 ip address 10.10.3.1 255.255.255.0 ! interface GigabitEthernet0/0 ip address 18.104.22.168 255.255.255.252 ! ip route 0.0.0.0 0.0.0.0 22.214.171.124
Starting with a basic check, we can ping each spoke from the HUB:
HUB#ping 126.96.36.199 Type escape sequence to abort. Sending 5, 100-byte ICMP Echos to 188.8.131.52, timeout is 2 seconds: !!!!! Success rate is 100 percent (5/5), round-trip min/avg/max = 5/5/6 ms HUB#ping 184.108.40.206 Type escape sequence to abort. Sending 5, 100-byte ICMP Echos to 220.127.116.11, timeout is 2 seconds: !!!!! Success rate is 100 percent (5/5), round-trip min/avg/max = 4/5/6 ms HUB#ping 18.104.22.168 Type escape sequence to abort. Sending 5, 100-byte ICMP Echos to 22.214.171.124, timeout is 2 seconds: !!!!! Success rate is 100 percent (5/5), round-trip min/avg/max = 5/5/6 ms
Firstly, lets start with some basic tunnel configuration. What we need to configure, an overlay which will use the 192.168.254.0/24 network for the tunnels to communicate. Lets go ahead and actually configure some other important commands on our HUB which will also act as the 'Next Hop Server aka NHS' for NHRP.
HUB Configuration (Phase 1)
interface Tunnel0 ip address 192.168.254.1 255.255.255.0 no ip redirects ip nhrp map multicast dynamic ip nhrp network-id 10 tunnel source GigabitEthernet0/0 tunnel mode gre multipoint tunnel key 1
ip nhrp map multicast dynamic
On the hub, this command serves to map multicast packets to the mappings that are created within the NHRP database.
ip nhrp network-id 10
This is similar to the tunnel key command, where we can identify specific NHRP networks but this must match on all routers, this is required in a NHRP configuration.
tunnel key 1
The tunnel key command in a tunnel configuration mode allows us to define which tunnel specific packets belong to, this is important when we have multiple tunnels on the interface and as a best practice I like to specify this even with a single tunnel configuration.
Spoke Configuration (Phase 1)
interface tunnel 0 ip address 192.168.254.(x) 255.255.255.0 !Spoke-1 .10, Spoke-2 .20 and Spoke-3 as .30 no ip redirects ip nhrp map 192.168.254.1 126.96.36.199 ip nhrp network-id 10 ip nhrp nhs 192.168.254.1 tunnel source GigabitEthernet0/0 tunnel mode gre multipoint tunnel key 1
Let's capture some packets! If I shut down the tunnel interface on Spoke-1 and turn it back on, this looks like the things thing that happens relating to NHRP, which also reflects the configuration we have done.
Let's look into the NHRP packet itself and then see what conversation is going on. We'll look into the interesting stuff without getting into too much depth:
Firstly, Spoke-1 sends a NHRP Registration request (to 188.8.131.52 which is the HUB), you can see this request holds some information which will build the NHRP database we will see shortly. Spoke-1 actually announces its own NBMA address and the protocol address (in our case its our tunnel: 192.168.254.10, destination to 192.168.254.1 the tunnel interface on the HUB). These NHRP requests will be sent every 1/3rd of the Hold timer which by default is 7200s (found under the 'Client Information Entry'). The client expects a reply and will keep sending out NHRP requests double time (from 1, 2, 4 etc.. to 32... that is the theory for those CCNP exam takers!)
Next, we receive a reply from 184.108.40.206 (HUB), which looks like:
If we take a quick look at RFC2332, its states that Code 0 is indeed a successful register with the NHS. The next 2 packets were actually a repeated request/successful request which we won't dive into because they look the same as the above 2 request and reply NHRP packets.
With all the spokes configured, this process happens fairly quickly in our lab environment and we can now see a populated NHRP database which can be found using:
HUB#show dmvpn Interface: Tunnel0, IPv4 NHRP Details Type:Hub, NHRP Peers:3, # Ent Peer NBMA Addr Peer Tunnel Add State UpDn Tm Attrb ----- --------------- --------------- ----- -------- ----- 1 220.127.116.11 192.168.254.10 UP 00:16:59 D 1 18.104.22.168 192.168.254.20 UP 00:15:08 D 1 22.214.171.124 192.168.254.30 UP 00:14:54 D
HUB#ping 192.168.254.10 Type escape sequence to abort. Sending 5, 100-byte ICMP Echos to 192.168.254.10, timeout is 2 seconds: !!!!! Success rate is 100 percent (5/5), round-trip min/avg/max = 6/6/8 ms HUB#ping 192.168.254.20 Type escape sequence to abort. Sending 5, 100-byte ICMP Echos to 192.168.254.20, timeout is 2 seconds: !!!!! Success rate is 100 percent (5/5), round-trip min/avg/max = 6/6/8 ms HUB#ping 192.168.254.30 Type escape sequence to abort. Sending 5, 100-byte ICMP Echos to 192.168.254.30, timeout is 2 seconds: !!!!! Success rate is 100 percent (5/5), round-trip min/avg/max = 6/6/7 ms
Do you think we would be able to ping Spoke-1 (192.168.254.10) from Spoke-2?
Spoke-2#ping 192.168.254.10 Type escape sequence to abort. Sending 5, 100-byte ICMP Echos to 192.168.254.10, timeout is 2 seconds: !!!!! Success rate is 100 percent (5/5), round-trip min/avg/max = 6/12/25 ms
The answer is yes! Although something happens behind the scenes. How could Spoke-2 possibly know how to get to 192.168.254.10? What happened was Spoke-2 actually send an NHRP request to its NHS (192.168.254.1). Because we have mapped the public IP address 126.96.36.199 to reach the HUB/NHS we can instantly send a request for 192.168.254.10.
You can see above, we sent our NBMA and the Tunnel address, but the destination is 192.168.254.10. We are going to practically be asking, what is the NMBA address for 192.168.254.10? Now this is the part where NHRP gets interesting, try to see if something looks different below:
If we just explain a quick overview, we send an NHRP request for 192.168.254.10 to 188.8.131.52 (which is our NHS). When the request hits the NHS, it will actually send it to the NMBA which is registered in the NHRP database (being 184.108.40.206). Spoke-1 (220.127.116.11) actually replies with its information (NMBA and Tunnel address 192.168.254.10). If we do a traceroute from Spoke-2 when the NHRP table is cleared on Spoke-2, have a look at the results that prove this:
Spoke-2#traceroute 192.168.254.10 1 192.168.254.1 9 msec 192.168.254.10 7 msec 6 msec Spoke-2#show dmvpn Interface: Tunnel0, IPv4 NHRP Details Type:Spoke, NHRP Peers:2, # Ent Peer NBMA Addr Peer Tunnel Add State UpDn Tm Attrb ----- --------------- --------------- ----- -------- ----- 1 18.104.22.168 192.168.254.1 UP 00:27:00 S 1 22.214.171.124 192.168.254.10 UP 00:00:23 D Spoke-2#traceroute 192.168.254.10 1 192.168.254.10 8 msec 7 msec *
If the entry is not in our NHRP database, then the first few packets/traffic will traverse through the HUB until we receive the reply with the NBMA address of Spoke-1. This is the dynamic part of DMVPN already in action, because we learn the address to send traffic to if we want to directly communicate with that Spoke.
When we start advertising our networks from the spokes, this will change and then we can start talking about the different phases that can change the flow of traffic and how routes are propagated throughout this DMVPN design. We are going to configure EIGRP to setup a relationship which each neighbor but also advertise the loopbacks into EIGRP.
router eigrp 1 network 10.0.0.0 0.255.255.255 network 192.168.254.0 0.0.0.255
We can put a more granular network statement to chose what participates into EIGRP but let us keep it simple and sweet. We'll look at the phases in DMVPN which can change our traffic flow and how we learn routes. Before moving on, we can come across an issue with EIGRP neighbor flapping with the tunnels, we must include a command in our tunnel configuration on each spoke which allows us to map multicast traffic to the NBMA address of the Hub.
interface tunnel 0 ip nhrp map multicast 126.96.36.199
Confirming EIGRP neighbors on the HUB:
HUB#sh ip eigrp ne EIGRP-IPv4 Neighbors for AS(1) H Address Interface Hold Uptime SRTT RTO Q Seq (sec) (ms) Cnt Num 2 192.168.254.30 Tu0 14 00:02:02 12 1506 0 5 1 192.168.254.20 Tu0 13 00:02:07 624 3744 0 5 0 192.168.254.10 Tu0 11 00:02:16 9 1506 0 6
If we have a look at the routes that the HUB has dynamically learned via EIGRP:
HUB#sh ip route eigrp 10.0.0.0/8 is variably subnetted, 11 subnets, 2 masks D 10.10.1.0/24 [90/27008000] via 192.168.254.10, 00:05:46, Tunnel0 D 10.10.2.0/24 [90/27008000] via 192.168.254.20, 00:05:38, Tunnel0 D 10.10.3.0/24 [90/27008000] via 192.168.254.30, 00:05:30, Tunnel0
There is an issue that can occur because of the default behaviour with EIGRP, if we take a look at the routing table for Spoke-3:
Spoke-3#show ip route eigrp 10.0.0.0/8 is variably subnetted, 6 subnets, 2 masks D 10.0.0.0/24 [90/27008000] via 192.168.254.1, 00:06:29, Tunnel0 D 10.0.1.0/24 [90/27008000] via 192.168.254.1, 00:06:29, Tunnel0 D 10.0.2.0/24 [90/27008000] via 192.168.254.1, 00:06:29, Tunnel0 D 10.0.3.0/24 [90/27008000] via 192.168.254.1, 00:06:29, Tunnel0
We can see routes behind the HUB (eg. loopbacks) that can successfully be reached via the Tunnel interface, the issue is with routes from other spokes. The default behaviour with EIGRP is to not advertise a route out of an interface which it was received on (eg. Tunnel 0), this is a very good example of Split Horizon which is also apart of RIP and how that protocol works. We can simply solve this with an interface command on the HUB:
interface tunnel 0 no ip split-horizon eigrp 1
Looking back at the routing table for Spoke-3:
Spoke-3#show ip route eigrp 10.0.0.0/8 is variably subnetted, 8 subnets, 2 masks D 10.0.0.0/24 [90/27008000] via 192.168.254.1, 00:09:07, Tunnel0 D 10.0.1.0/24 [90/27008000] via 192.168.254.1, 00:09:07, Tunnel0 D 10.0.2.0/24 [90/27008000] via 192.168.254.1, 00:09:07, Tunnel0 D 10.0.3.0/24 [90/27008000] via 192.168.254.1, 00:09:07, Tunnel0 D 10.10.1.0/24 [90/28288000] via 192.168.254.1, 00:00:12, Tunnel0 D 10.10.2.0/24 [90/28288000] via 192.168.254.1, 00:00:12, Tunnel0
The phases are kind of steps during the DMVPN process when you have:
Phase 1) Only Hub-Spoke traffic
Phase 2) Spokes can then dynamically form tunnels with other spokes, no need to go through the HUB (firstly initial traffic will go through HUB because of the NHRP request)
Phase 3) Spokes can dynamically reply to a NHRP request and spokes can work together without the HUB to initiate traffic between them
During phase 1, our traffic will ALWAYS go through the HUB because although we have turned off 'split horizon', the HUB will advertise the routes from other spokes via itself. The next hop IP address in the routing table will show the HUBs IP address as shown below: (Notice all routes are reachable via 192.168.254.1)
Spoke-1#show ip route eigrp 10.0.0.0/8 is variably subnetted, 8 subnets, 2 masks D 10.0.0.0/24 [90/27008000] via 192.168.254.1, 00:49:16, Tunnel0 D 10.0.1.0/24 [90/27008000] via 192.168.254.1, 00:49:16, Tunnel0 D 10.0.2.0/24 [90/27008000] via 192.168.254.1, 00:49:16, Tunnel0 D 10.0.3.0/24 [90/27008000] via 192.168.254.1, 00:49:16, Tunnel0 D 10.10.2.0/24 [90/28288000] via 192.168.254.1, 00:40:05, Tunnel0 D 10.10.3.0/24 [90/28288000] via 192.168.254.1, 00:40:05, Tunnel0
If we simply use a command on the HUB, we can allow the routes to be pushed out without the HUB adding itself as the next hop to reach the network. This is also moving the DMVPN into phase 2 where direct communication between spokes don't need to transverse the HUB all the time.
interface Tunnel0 no ip next-hop-self eigrp 1
Before looking into what this does, now we will take another look at the routing table:
Spoke-1#show ip route eigrp 10.0.0.0/8 is variably subnetted, 8 subnets, 2 masks D 10.0.0.0/24 [90/27008000] via 192.168.254.1, 00:00:21, Tunnel0 D 10.0.1.0/24 [90/27008000] via 192.168.254.1, 00:00:21, Tunnel0 D 10.0.2.0/24 [90/27008000] via 192.168.254.1, 00:00:21, Tunnel0 D 10.0.3.0/24 [90/27008000] via 192.168.254.1, 00:00:21, Tunnel0 D 10.10.2.0/24 [90/28288000] via 192.168.254.20, 00:00:21, Tunnel0 D 10.10.3.0/24 [90/28288000] via 192.168.254.30, 00:00:21, Tunnel0
We can now see, 10.10.2.0/24 via 192.168.254.20 and 10.10.3.0/24 via 192.168.254.30. This command will not make the HUB advertise the routes via itself. Back to Phase 3, the spoke itself can reply directly to a request because currently the request is being sent to the HUB and then the HUB is forwarding that request towards the destination.
Here is an example of a basic packet capture when Spoke-1 tries to ping 10.10.3.1 (Spoke-3):
You can see, the original source (188.8.131.52 - Spoke-1) is sent towards 184.108.40.206(HUB) and then, 220.127.116.11(HUB) sends it to 18.104.22.168(Spoke-3). To make this into Phase 3, we can simply add 2 commands on the hub and then a command on each spoke:
!HUB interface tunnel 0 ip nhrp redirect ip nhrp shortcut !SPOKES interface tunnel 0 ip nhrp shortcut
Its 3:34AM and I need sleep (said this an hour ago...) so will update this when I get some time tomorrow...
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So as visible from the title this ones on the famous flop of a game Destiny 2 which was launched on all platforms. So what is their to rant about with destiny? Their base game is actually designed well, inventory system is clean and flush, The maps are clear and understanding, Gameplay in PVE is well and when you get use to it if your a Destiny 1 player the Crucible is alright. So what is the problem with the game? Oh right the End-Game content and content in general.
So to start off lets talk about the End game content. Hmm wait there isn't much really, You have Public events and patrols, the weekly and daily milestones, Nightfall and the Raid. But that sounds like a decent amount of end game content. Well in retro speck it isn't purely due to a system they implemented called 'Clans'. When you in an active clan you have many members going around doing things for the clan and getting the clan reward for all members so whats the problem with this? well the system includes Raid equipment drops and not just the Tokens (which I would prefer) so people who don't do the raid will have a chance of getting a raid weapon or gear for minimum effort and to kick in the teeth of the ones who ran the raid the clan engram for the raid will drop it at a higher light level... So like I mentioned if you are in an active clan you can get these drops weekly and with less effort.
Now what else can I talk about? well the remaining of the end game content is stale (prior to the nightfall update) nightfalls previously didn't drop specific gear for said nightfall, Public events just get repetitive and milestones are usually done within a day (excluding Raid depending on your play style) So what could they have done? Well below i'm gonna give some opinions.
1. Bring back the Daily/Weekly Campaign missions at a harder difficulties,
This can provide replay ability and also give the player another thing to do and possibly find a rare weapon only available within the Daily/Weekly campaign event... *Cough* Black Spindle *cough*
2. Add an intractable door in the tower which takes you to the last city.
So to explain this in detail the door would bring you to the last city which would have patrols that would have you clearing out the remaining cabal that are within the city, Have an area like Court of Oryx on the Dreadnaught where you must fend off a wave of Cabal attacking the city from the wall or ones heading towards the tower. It could include things like intractable AI which will give you quests or simply a different prospective of the fall to add to the already 'existent lore', and when you have explored for a while your vanguard will radio you saying that they have a reward for you when you return for helping in the repair of the last city (Daily rewards) nothing amazing maybe vanguard gear which is a light level higher than the current peace you have or randomly give you and exotic engram.
This would give more end-game as having a court of oryx type event happen that you can start can lead to more gear to collect and well a fun massive event that more than 6 guardians can participate in.
3. Add back the Randomised weapon roles (I heard they are possibly being brought back)
This added to the end-game in a way because people would grind to get the 'perfect role' of a weapon and this would then in return improve the crucible than just seeing the Uriels Gift and all the other generic weapons that are soo so common in the Crucible.
4. Remove the Raid gear engram from the clan post, Meaning they will not get raid gear but be given tokens for the raid vendor (Which only unlocks when you ran the raid once) So this give people the incentive to run the raid to use said tokens and will also provide players with more things to do and or raid helpers. So for this I was thinking you would need to get this drop of tokens for 3 weeks in a row to get one piece of armour/weapon form the vendor.
Like this is minor things that could use recycled aspects of the game to make possible, You have the assets for the City already since it was used in the second mission (technically second mission) you have the script for the randomised roles on weapons from Destiny one and the same script for the daily/weekly missions
No to be fair this wasn't much of a rant but my opinion on the game and showing what I see as flaws for the hardcore area of the community
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PCPartPicker part list: https://ca.pcpartpicker.com/list/8vP9GG
Price breakdown by merchant: https://ca.pcpartpicker.com/list/8vP9GG/by_merchant/
CPU: Intel - Core i5-8400 2.8GHz 6-Core Processor ($229.95 @ Vuugo)
Memory: G.Skill - Aegis 8GB (1 x 8GB) DDR4-2133 Memory ($102.99 @ Newegg Canada)
Storage: ADATA - SU800 128GB M.2-2280 Solid State Drive ($66.99 @ Newegg Canada)
Storage: Western Digital - Caviar Blue 1TB 3.5" 7200RPM Internal Hard Drive ($47.99 @ Newegg Canada)
Video Card: Gigabyte - GeForce GTX 1060 6GB 6GB D5 6G Video Card ($439.99 @ Newegg Canada)
Power Supply: Corsair - CXM 550W 80+ Bronze Certified Semi-Modular ATX Power Supply ($81.99 @ PC-Canada)
Other: ASUS TUF H310-Plus Gaming LGA1151 (300 Series) DDR4 HDMI VGA M.2 ATX Motherboard ($112.65)
Prices include shipping, taxes, and discounts when available
Generated by PCPartPicker 2018-04-15 00:12 EDT-0400
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How to Get Microsoft Office Specialist Certification?
Can you imagine a scenario where a single certification can give you the much-desired and much-required career hike?
Yes, it can happen. Not in dreams but in reality. A Microsoft Office Specialist Certification is the key to achieve that. The course if highly reputable in the IT streets and hold a concrete value as well. The certification will instill a comprehensive set of industry-oriented skills and expertise. By doing this certification, you will be well-versed in implementing the integrated modules of Microsoft Office in a real-time situation. It comes with a guarantee to make you proficient in the full features and practicality of Microsoft Office.
Why go for Microsoft Office Specialist certification?
Because there is nothing that doesn’t require Microsoft Office. Starting from an austere report to the research-based presentation, everything is made with the comprehensive tools of Microsoft Office only. MS Word, MS Excel, and MS PowerPoint are the three pillars of any business and organization and if you are not aware of their know-how then your survival would be very tough. The certification makes you well-versed in these three most vital tools.
Here is our guide to getting a Microsoft Certification Office Specialist Certification.
- Acquire some basic system knowledge beforehand - Before enrolling yourself to real-time Microsoft Office specialist certification, some basic computer knowledge is essential. However, in today's digital world there would be hardly any single soul which doesn’t know how to operate the computer. Still, predictions are not always true. If you don’t know the basics of the operating system then kindly enroll for a Basic Computer learning course.
- Proceed further by enrolling in Microsoft office courses - Once you acquire some basic operating knowledge, it’s time to get enrolled in a professional Microsoft Office Course. The course will help you to have a better understanding of the extensive features of Microsoft Office.
- Pick the right certification course - To become a certified Microsoft Office Specialist; you should get a relevant certification. Depending on your skills and your requirements, you can choose particular certification. For instance, professionals who deal with MIS Reports and Sales Reports can go for MS Excel certification. Similarly, MS Word certification is the best option for individuals preparing newsletters, press releases, blogs and any sort of content requirement.
- Clear the certification exam - The final step is to clear the certification program. All the Microsoft Office Specialist certification programs require candidates to clear an exam to acquire the certification. The exam is of 90-minute duration and consists of varied questions. If you have attended the classes and did the thorough practice then clearing it would be a tough nut to crack. However, proper guidance is always crucial.
How to get through the exam?
Depending on the skills and level, the Microsoft Office Specialist Certification is divided into three categories:
Each category has a thorough curriculum and demands utmost dedication from candidate’s side to get it cleared Microsoft training. While choosing the Institute for this certification, candidates should be extra careful as many institutes do not provide customer and Online-instructor support. There are institutes like Koenig Solutions with dedicated teams to mentor you and help enhance your understanding of the course materials.
Who can go for Microsoft Office Specialist Certification?
This certification is not industry-specific or bounded. Anyone can do this course as Microsoft implementation is vast and varied.
However, profiles like Administrator, Project Managers, Analysts, Marketing Managers, and HR Executives are in deep need of this course. The scope of this course is not limited to professionals. Students can also go this course as today’s education world also demands good operating system knowledge.
So, whether you are a skilled professional working in an MNC or a student pursuing studies, get a Microsoft Office certification and stand above your competitors.
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Release TRIO is a pre-release that we have worked on since 01/16/18. We still haven't finished the program, which uses HTML, but we are constantly working on it. When we have free time, we get our computers and start to work on this. Release version 0.2.8 should be up very soon.
The HTML program, as of TRIO release, has built in audio playing straight from the page without opening a new tab, embedded videos straight from our drives (There was some TechQuickie in there, but due to GitHub size limitations, the videos did not show up), PDF file viewing (still working on embed codes, they keep messing up), and Nav bars?(team idea)
So far, we have found every device to support it, but if you have an android Root server, music links may not open.
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This is the pc I bought which got me into PC's and flipping them. I got this pc for 110 dollars. It came with a keyboard, mouse, Logitech speakers, and monitor. This was when I barely knew that I could take the side cover off a computer. I really liked this computer, it had an i7 and to me, at the time I thought i7 was the best. I didn't even know there were different version and generations of the i7. Here is how this Hp Pavilion made me money. Before I sold the computer I gave it a fresh install of windows 10 because the previous owner didn't delete everything from it and I had to learn to do that. I ended up selling the computer for 130 dollars and just the tower nothing else. The reason I sold it was I picked up 30 dollar gaming rig which I was told worked, but once I sold this one. I got home and plugged it into the computer wouldn't show up on the monitor long story short it ended up just being the graphics card and I swapped it for a new one. I tried new cables and everything none of it worked besides a graphics card. In the end, I got to keep a monitor, keyboard, speakers, a mouse, and 20 dollars. This computer is was a real decent computer and did everything I wanted it too. I would recommend to anyone trying to just surf the web, watch videos, and even some light gaming. This PC could handle a lot more if it had an upgraded graphics card and maybe a power supply. The computer came with MSRP of $1,099.99 dollars. The computer started off with windows 7, but somewhere along the long it was upgraded to windows 10. It was really neat to learn from this computer and see what I would want/need in my next pc. Since this was such a base model computer, it showed and made me appreciate higher end rigs. This also goes to show you that anyone can really flip PC's and it's not hard to do at all.
Hp Pavilion Elite e9270f
CPU: Intel Core I7 860 2.8 GHz MAX: 3.46 GHz
RAM: 8GB 4x2GB MAX:16GB
GPU: ATI Radeon HD4650
MOTHERBOARD: MSI MS-7613
Hope you enjoy this little pc flip, catch you later!
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MSI GeForce GTX 1070 DirectX 12 GTX 1070 AERO ITX 8G OC 8GB 256-Bit GDDR5 PCI Express 3.0 x16 HDCP Ready SLI Support Video Card
MSI A68HM-E33 V2 FM2+ AMD A68H SATA 6Gb/s USB 3.0 HDMI Micro ATX AMD Motherboard
G.SKILL 1GB 184-Pin DDR SDRAM DDR 400 (PC 3200) Desktop Memory Model F1-3200PHU1-1GBNS
Creative Sound BlasterX AE-5 7.1 Channels 32-bit 384 KHz Sound Card
Intel Core i7-7820X Skylake-X 8-Core 3.6 GHz LGA 2066 140W BX80673I77820X Desktop Processor
SAMSUNG 850 EVO 2.5" 500GB SATA III 3D NAND Internal Solid State Drive (SSD) MZ-75E500B/AM
Pioneer BDR-XS06 External Slim Blu-Ray 6X USB 3.0 Writer Drive
Internal Power Cable:
SilverStone All Black Sleeved 1-to-2 Sleeved PWM Fan Splitter Cable (CPF01)
18": Coboc Model SC-SATA3-18-BK 18" SATA III 6Gb/s Data Cable
36": Coboc Model SC-SATA3-36 36" 90 Degree(Right Angle) SATA III 6Gb/s Data Cable
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At the beginning of the month I decided I needed to actually build my fist gaming PC. Previously I was using a terrible laptop.
All I want to do with this blog post is get some thoughts on my config.
CPU: Ryzen 7 1800x
GPU: nVidia GeForce GTX 1080
RAM: Basilisx Elite 8 Gb (2x4)
Motherboard: ASRock Fatal1ty X370 Gaming K4
Case: NZXT S340
PSU: EVGA SuperNOVA G2 550W Fully Modular
Wireless NIC: Edimax - EW-7822PIC
CPU Cooler: Deepcool Captain 240 EX
Boot Drive: Intel - 530 Series 80GB
Games Storage: Samsung - 850 EVO-Series 250GB x2
Main Storage: Seagate - BarraCuda 1TB
Archive/Backups: Western Digital - Red 3TB x2
A little bit about myself.
My name is Shaun my nickname is Witchart. I am 44 years of age and I have been using witchart as my nickname for over 30 years. Do you remember CB radios?. Well, witchart was my handle and I still use it today.
Over the last 20 years, I have built hundreds of Pc's for friends and family also myself but they have always been your cheap office type and sometimes a cheap gaming pcs. Nothing that looked really good and defiantly no water cooling or RGB.
I decided to build Nightwalker after hearing about the new Xbox X coming out. I was impressed with the specs and thought yes I want one. I have never owned a console before it just seems so powerful I thought it would beat most PC's (I had not looked into the latest gaming tech for PC's for over 10 years) I was really out of the loop, I delved into the Net and started to do some research.
Within 10 minutes I knew I wasn't going to buy an Xbox, no it was going to cost me a lot more money but I was thunderstruck to see what was out there and how gaming on the pc was thriving.
After a little discussion with the wife, That's all I am saying.
Research started. My first port of call was YouTube I was looking at other peoples personal builds to help inspire me. Wile, I was churning through YouTube I came across a vid titled 4 gamers one pc, I thought that sounds mad had to watch it. I thought it was cool. That was the first vid I watched from LinusTEch tips. I don't miss a vid now.
After a few weeks of research, I was finally was happy with My parts list. And decided to dig deep into my pockets and start spending.
I managed to save around £300 pound just by shopping around and also managed to get a coupon from MSI for 30% off any graphics card.
Case Thermaltake core p5.
Wasn't sure what colour to go for, I decided the snow addition would be cool I didn't order this online I went to my local pc tech store. Unfortunately, they had just sold the last one. I wasn't waiting until they had replenished their stock so I purchased the black one instead. Which I regret now. I feel a paint job coming on in the near future but for now it I'll do.
PSU Fractal design 550w.
550w PSU should do nicely for my system the only reason I decided on the Fractal design PSU is that I already had the Fractal Design Kelvin S36 AIO cooler.
Motherboard MSI X370 Gaming pro Carbon
Trust me I found choosing the motherboard to be the hardest choice I had to make. It was between three Mboard and the Carbon one because I found it on Scan.com for £120 really good deal back then.
CPU Ryzen 5 1600x
I Think the last time I built an Amd Machines it was a K6-2. I was really impressed with what I had learnt about the Ryzen CPU family. NightWalker is not just for playing games I spend Loads of time in Photoshop and other CPU demanding applications, so going for a CPU that has 6 cores 12 thread for just under £220 Yes I did it, I was the proud owner of a 1600x Get in.
Memory Adata XPG 4gig x 2 3000mhz
Idiot Idiot idiot I did not buy XPG 3000mhz no I got 2400mhz I must have pressed on the wrong link once again Idiot, At the moment I have overclocked it to 2666 which seems to be ok but will be upgrading to 16 gigs I will then sell on my 24000mhz ram on eBay.
Cooling Kelvin S36 AIO.
I really liked the idea of water cooling Nightwalker, well the CPU at least and I like overkill so Kelvin S36 AIO was my choice I liked the look of it and I also know its not the best but it would be good enough for my Ryzen and also you can add to it, cool That didn't take me long sins it would not fit in my Core P5 without been at least extended, so some soft tubing and red cooling fluid was needed.
Graphics card Msi GTX 1070 Armor
The sweet spot well for me at least, money was an issue but also with a coupon from MSI giving 30% off any Graphics card of there's that is. The only one I really liked the look of and would fit in this build was The armor and sins you can get a GTX 1050 up to 1080 TI in that style I thought 1070 would be quick and smooth enough for the price. I was going to get 1060 before I got the coupon from MSI.
Storage Adata 256gig SSD and a 4TB Seagate HD
These drive were not new I pillaged them out of another computer I had knocking around but will be buying m.2 sometime in the future.
To help brighten Nightwalker up RGBRGBRGBRGB may be a little rgb I think you get the message. I also thought it would be good to have some black light thrown in for good measures as well. 8 Cold cathode UV 100mm tubes YES.
I didn't really like the look of the cables that come with the Fractal design PSU so I went online and got some white extensions, they look so much better.
I think its time to show you how She (always she just like My car) is getting on. Not finished yet I will be adding a hard tube loop after Christmas whooo cant wait.
I nearly forgot to mention some little cheap toys crawling all over her just for fun.
With an average internet connection speed of 6.5 Mbps (IPv4), India has secured a global rank of 89 in broadband internet speed as per the State of the Internet for the first quarter of 2017 (Q1) connectivity report. The report has been released by Akamai Technologies which is the world’s largest cloud delivery platform; and it shares insight into various digital trends that can be observed globally like internet disruptions, connection speeds and so on. The number is quite below the global average speed of internet connection which is 7.2 Mbps seeing a year-on-year increase of 15 percent.
For a country that is still climbing the ladder to an improved Digital India, this marks a year-on-year change of 87 percent. Adding to that there is a 42 percent adoption of a 4 Mbps broadband in Quarter 1 of 2017 which offers a year-on-year increase of 81 percent. During the same period, there was also 17 percent adoption of the IPv6.
While the country that topped the charts boasting average speeds of 28.6 Mbps is South Korea, India stands ahead of China which secured the 91st position but is lagging way behind Sri Lanka with an average speed of 8.5 Mbps. The category of the highest peak connection speed in the first quarter of 2017 was bagged by Singapore at 184.5 Mbps. While when compared to the average broadband connection speeds last year India seems to be climbing up the rank slowly, the country surely has a long way to go.
Waving a generous goodbye to the horror of sluggish web browsing, painfully slow downloads, incessantly interrupted catch-up TV and so on is easy especially now that users have the option of availing the faster and better v-fiber broadband. Without getting unnecessarily technical, it will suffice for you to know that compared to traditional ADSL internet, fiber broadband is way faster than using fiber optic cables to circulate data resulting in an broadband connection that is much speedier and more reliable. It not only facilitates fast download, upload, streaming etc. the extra speed you get is also ideal for a household that has a large number of people using the same broadband across multiple devices.
Hence, if you are stuck with maximum standard speeds of something around 17 Mbps, you must know that you can totally get an internet speed of up to 100 Mbps. Network service providers like Airtel has launched something called V-Fiber which promises to provide superfast data speeds over the network’s existing internet connection. Upgrading to V-Fiber is also a convenient process with a quick modem upgrade without any change of wiring required in your home. You may need to change the modem though.
As India benefits from the progress made on the availability of improved bandwidth and speeds, Indians stand to benefit from the affordability of it all with leading network connections lining up to offer the best broadband plans for the best user experience.
Guess this oughta exist.
Counting Paramount tapes only, no specific variant within that realm.
Regular Holiday Specials:
A Charlie Brown Christmas - ✓ (1998 print)
It's the Great Pumpkin, Charlie Brown - ✓ (2000 reprint of 1997 tape)
A Charlie Brown Thanksgiving - ✗
Be My Valentine, Charlie Brown - ✗
It's the Easter Beagle, Charlie Brown - ✓ (2001 reprint of 1994? tape)
Happy New Year, Charlie Brown - ✓ (1996 reprint of 1994 tape; from this point on the tape came in a clamshell)
Series of Releases:
Snoopy Double Feature:
- You're the Greatest, Charlie Brown and Snoopy's Reunion - ✓ (original Paramount Communications tape, 1994 print)
- He's Your Dog, Charlie Brown and It's Flashbeagle, Charlie Brown - ✗
- You're in Love, Charlie Brown and It's Your First Kiss, Charlie Brown - ✗
- What a Nightmare, Charlie Brown and It's Magic, Charlie Brown - ✓ (1998 print)
- There's No Time for Love, Charlie Brown and Someday You'll Find Her, Charlie Brown - ✗
- Life's a Circus, Charlie Brown and Snoopy's Getting Married, Charlie Brown - ✗
- Charlie Brown's All-Stars! and It's Spring Training, Charlie Brown - ✗
- You're Not Elected, Charlie Brown and It Was a Short Summer, Charlie Brown - ✗
The Charlie Brown and Snoopy Show:
- Volume 1 - ✓ [You Can't Win, Charlie Brown and Linus' Security Blanket episodes] (original Paramount Communications tape, 1994 print)
- Volume 2 - ✗ [Snoopy's Cat Fight and Linus and Lucy episodes]
- Volume 3 - ✓ [Snoopy: Man's Best Friend and The Lost Ballpark episodes] (2003 reprint of 1994 tape; missing slip cover)
- Volume 4 - ✗ [Snoopy: Team Manager and Lucy Loves Schroeder episodes]
- Volume 5 - ✗ [Snoopy the Psychiatrist and Lucy vs. the World episodes]
- Volume 6 - ✗ [Snoopy's Football Career and Chaos in the Classroom episodes]
- Volume 7 - ✗ [It's That Team Spirit, Charlie Brown and Snoopy and the Giant episodes]
- Volume 8 - ✗ [Snoopy's Brother Spike and Snoopy's Robot episodes]
- Volume 9 - ✗ [Peppermint Patty's School Days and Sally's Sweet Babboo episodes]
- Volumes 1 and 2 - ✗ [You Can't Win, Charlie Brown, Linus' Security Blanket, Snoopy's Cat Fight and Linus and Lucy episodes; rental exclusive?]
This is America, Charlie Brown:
- Volume 1: The Great Inventors - ✗
- Volume 2: The Wright Brothers at Kitty Hawk - ✗
- Volume 3: The Building of the Transcontinental Railroad - ✗
- Volume 4: The Mayflower Voyagers - ✗
- Volume 5: The NASA Space Station - ✗
- Volume 6: The Birth of the Constitution - ✗
- Volume 7: The Smithsonian and the Presidency - ✗
- Volume 8: The Music and Heroes of America - ✗
Initial Paramount Releases:
It Was My Best Birthday Ever, Charlie Brown - ✓
It's the Pied Piper, Charlie Brown - ✓ (English and Spanish clamshell covers, Spanish cover includes English tape)
A Charlie Brown Valentine - ✗
Lucy Must Be Traded, Charlie Brown - ✗
I Want a Dog for Christmas, Charlie Brown - ✗
A Boy Named Charlie Brown - ✗
Snoopy Come Home - ✗ (Fox print; I need the Paramount print)
Race for Your Life, Charlie Brown - ✓ (1999 reprint of 1994? tape)
Bon Voyage, Charlie Brown (and Don't Come Back!) - ✓ (however, I would like to get a later print; this is the 1985 Gulf and Western print)
Other Paramount Tapes:
Empty until further notice.
One-off Specials and Musicals:
You're a Good Man, Charlie Brown - ✗
Snoopy the Musical - ✗
The Big Stuffed Dog - ✗
It's the Girl in the Red Truck, Charlie Brown - ✗
You Don't Look 40, Charlie Brown - ✗
December 10th - Added episodes for Volume 8 of The Charlie Brown and Snoopy Show
December 11th - Added another Snoopy Double Feature tape (Charlie Brown's All-Stars! and It's Spring Training, Charlie Brown)
December 11th R2 - Added yet another Snoopy Double Feature tape (You're Not Elected, Charlie Brown and It Was a Short Summer, Charlie Brown)
July 4th - Got my hands on The Charlie Brown and Snoopy Show Vol. 1, edited info for Happy New Year, Charlie Brown
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Purchased OVH Australian Server when I started my business.CPU: Intel Xeon E3-1245v5 - 4c/8t - 3.5GHz /3.9GHzRAM: 32GB DDR4 ECC 2133 MHzDisks: SoftRAID 2x2TBIt's great to have an affordable on-shore server now but it kind of sucks knowing for the same price I could get the same server but with unlimited bandwidth and with 64 gigs of RAM.I really do hate Australia's internet. D:
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