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How do I go about creating a cold storage?


I have a bunch of data that I would eventually just want to keep in cold storage.
How do I go about doing so?
I have around 12TB~ of total hard drive space and that they are at minimum at 50% filled.
- One 500GB SATA SSD
- One 4TB HDD
- Two 2TB HDD
- One 2TB External
- One 1TB External
- One 1TB SHDD (from an old laptop)

I guess my questions would be:
- How do I go about getting the data from the drives, I would not like to copy-paste in File Explorer as I know there are duplicate files already in this system.
- How do I go about removing duplicate files?
- What kind of storage solution should I go for?
- How do I go around and make sure everything is properly copied over and can safely format the old drives to be used in another system or other purposes(want to reinstall Win10/Linux on the laptop or even ChromeOS Flex)

Other things that I think I want to mention
I would like the solution to be expandable, and maybe redundant to a degree.
I do have a really old Vista prefab desktop which maybe can turn into a DIY NAS, I could also use my current rig that I am planning to retire when I do build a new system, which is a i7-6700k.
I really would like to do it as cheaply as possible. 
Speaking of NAS, I guess it would be good if I can access it as easily like that although it is cold storage.

Honestly my storage just went out of control due to a scare at the start of the pandemic when my primary storage drive(one of the 2TB HDD) has an error and that year I also bought a 1 TB HDD for recording storage for OBS, which subsequently failed 2 years later. 
The 4TB and the other 2TB HDD, along with a 1TB NVME SSD(which is still unused), which sadly dropped in prices now that times have passed, were supposed to go to my new system that I was planning to build but the scares happen then the announcement of Intel 12th Gen happened and awaiting of the new Zen4 Platform, so it was massively held back. Now I got a new laptop instead as locally we are transitioning to face-to-face meetings instead of online-only.

Anyways, thank you for reading through this and if you can help, I would really appreciate it.

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