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Beginner - How does case fan control work?

I'm completely new to PC building, so I was wondering how case fans determine their speed. Do they spin at 100% as soon as you turn the PC on, do you set it manually, or does it happen automatically based on the temps? Also, what would you need to do for the fans to automatically shut down completely when you're idle? This is my setup:

 

 

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1 minute ago, Skylakeone said:

Do they spin at 100% as soon as you turn the PC on, do you set it manually, or does it happen automatically based on the temps? Also, what would you need to do for the fans to automatically shut down completely when you're idle?

If the fans are connected to the mobo, you can typically adjust their speed and set a curve for them both from BIOS and from the mobo-manufacturer's software in Windows. Whether you can set the fans to turn off completely when the CPU is cool enough depends on the BIOS; not all BIOSes allow you to turn them off completely, only allowing you to drop their speed to something around 20% at the minimum.

Hand, n. A singular instrument worn at the end of the human arm and commonly thrust into somebody’s pocket.

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12 minutes ago, Skylakeone said:

does it happen automatically based on the temps?

This is what happens. You can also set it manually.

I will recommend an NHu12s (or an NHd15 (maybe)) for your PC build. Quote or @ me @Prodigy_Smit for me to see your replies.

PSU Teir List | Howdy! A Windows Hello Alternative 

 

 

Desktop :

i7 8700 | Quadro P4000 8GB |  64gb 2933Mhz cl18 | 500 GB Samsung 960 Pro | 1tb SSD Samsung 850 evo

Laptop :

ASUS G14 | R9 5900hs | RTX 3060 | 16GB 3200Mhz | 1 TB SSD

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The motherboard gets your component's temperature. In the BIOS you can adjust which speed your fans should run at certain temperatures. Then your motherboard adjusts th PWM signals which are connected to your fans. The signal can be either 100% or 0% so it will be turned on and off with a high frequency. So there is a static period time and the mother board can adjust how much % of this time the signal is 100%.
For example you want 20% speed, so 20% of the period time the signal is high and 80% of the period time the signal is low. So on average over time the signal is 20%.

My build:

CPU

Intel Core i7 9700 8x 3.00GHz So.1151

 

CPU cooler

be quiet! Shadow Rock Slim

 

Motherboard

MSI B360-A PRO Intel B360 So.1151 Dual Channel DDR4 ATX

 

RAM

16GB (4x 4096MB) HyperX FURY black DDR4-2666

 

GPU

8GB Gigabyte GeForce RTX2070 WindForce 2X 3xDP/HDMI

 

SSD

500GB Samsung 970 Evo Plus M.2 2280

 

HDD

4000GB WD Red WD40EFRX Intellipower 64MB 3.5" (8.9cm) SATA 6Gb/s

 

Case

Fractal Design Define R6
3x bequiet! Silent Wings 3 PWM

 

Monitor

ASUS TUF Gaming VG27WQ

 

Headset

Sennheiser GSP670

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Better still is to finetune what you want in Windows using Speedfan.

 

But I'd like to tag on a quick question for some of the more experienced:
If I apply a low voltage (3pin DC) or low duty cycle percentage (4pin PWM) to a fan, so low they don't even keep spinning, does it damage them?

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