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LAwLz

The Networking board's Frequently Asked Questions, Pre-answered!

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Nice thread, 10.0.0.1 is also used sometimes as standard gateway on some routers (at least some Zyxel routers).

 

You could also add some information about static leases :)

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In the improving wireless, I suggest adding another way. Putting a cooler below the router/modem. I've experience this, heat most of the time can get these devices not to function fully as they suppose to. A simple notebook cooler can add some airflow to it, reducing the amount of heat on the device itself.

 

Next is the port forwarding part i'd like to add. Before doing the port forwards on the router, assign a static IP to your computer first. This is because most home users will just run things out-of-the-box. Which means they will use a DHCP server and will assign a different internal IP for the computer every time it connects. If you want to keep the existing port forward setting specifically to a certain pc, static internal IP will be better.

And i'd like to add one more tips for others. Sometimes people will complain about transferring files through LANs is slow (eg 3mb/s) even though they have Gigabit connections or just any 10/100 connections. This is because Windows will usually set the speed to Auto Negotiate. Everytime windows detect some older connections, they will assign the 10mbps speed to the LAN connection instead of 100mpbs or 1gbps.
You can change this setting by doing this.

 

In Windows XP -->
Right click your LAN connection and select Open Network Connections, then double click your LAN connection. After that click Configure, then navigate to the Advance tab and choose Link Speed/Duplex Mode. From there you can choose up to 100Mbps Full Duplex if you are on a 10/100 connection or up to 1Gbps/1000Mbps Full Duplex if you are on a Gigabit connection.

 

In Windows 7/8 -->
Go to your Network & Sharing center and click on your LAN Connection(Ethernet). After that everything is same as above.

 

Most people will find this useless but for me when I'm copying large amount of Datas across the network (eg. Backing up a computer to a home server or copying games across computers), I found that this can save me lots of time.

Other than that, Nice FAQ Thread you got here. Keep Up The Good Work :D

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good thread we need more of these well done martin :D 


If you tell a big enough lie and tell it frequently enough it will be believed.

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Need more ports on your router ? Looked into switches, but you are confused with the naming ?
Here are the types of switches you might encounter when shopping for one:

  • Unmanaged or "dumb" switches. These types of switches do not have any user configurable options and are best suited for home users who wish to expand their network or just add extra ports to their router. These switches are ready to use out of the box.
  • Smart switches. A tier down from managed ones, these switches offer the ability to configure some options like QoS and VLAN's via a web interface and are best suited for users who need a slightly tighter control over their network.
  • Managed switches. A switch that offers even more features usually suited for enterprise users and large networks, these switches can often be stacked. A serial CLI interface is usually provided for management and configuration.

Switches usually come in standard port number configurations 5,8,16,24,48 (Usable ports = number of ports - 1).

I need to run ethernet cable, but i don't know what the Cat symbol on the wire means

The "Cat" or category is a cable rating system and it tells the user how much the cable can handle in terms of speed and interference. Here are the most common categories you will encounter:

  • Category 3 or Cat3 cable, is a very old standard that allows the wire to carry speeds up to 10mbps, it is no longer used for internet, but instead is still used for telephone wiring.
  • Category 5e or Cat5e, the most common cable type right now, it can handle 100mbps and 1gbps speeds.
  • Category 6 or Cat6 in addition to being able to handle more interference it can also handle 10gbps speeds, though at reduced distance.
  • Category 7 or Cat7 or Class F cable is rated for full length 10gbps operation.

All these cables (except Cat7) come in two types: STP (or FTP in EU) this is a shielded cable and UTP (unshielded cable). A maximum length of a ethernet cable is 330ft (100m), going further you risk signal degradation.

 


Something wrong with your connection ?

Run the damn cable :)

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Can i use a switch for daily use? And,i don't know how to use a switch. Can someone help?


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In the improving wireless, I suggest adding another way. Putting a cooler below the router/modem. I've experience this, heat most of the time can get these devices not to function fully as they suppose to. A simple notebook cooler can add some airflow to it, reducing the amount of heat on the device itself.

Next is the port forwarding part i'd like to add. Before doing the port forwards on the router, assign a static IP to your computer first. This is because most home users will just run things out-of-the-box. Which means they will use a DHCP server and will assign a different internal IP for the computer every time it connects. If you want to keep the existing port forward setting specifically to a certain pc, static internal IP will be better.

And i'd like to add one more tips for others. Sometimes people will complain about transferring files through LANs is slow (eg 3mb/s) even though they have Gigabit connections or just any 10/100 connections. This is because Windows will usually set the speed to Auto Negotiate. Everytime windows detect some older connections, they will assign the 10mbps speed to the LAN connection instead of 100mpbs or 1gbps.

You can change this setting by doing this.

In Windows XP -->Right click your LAN connection and select Open Network Connections, then double click your LAN connection. After that click Configure, then navigate to the Advance tab and choose Link Speed/Duplex Mode. From there you can choose up to 100Mbps Full Duplex if you are on a 10/100 connection or up to 1Gbps/1000Mbps Full Duplex if you are on a Gigabit connection.

In Windows 7/8 -->

Go to your Network & Sharing center and click on your LAN Connection(Ethernet). After that everything is same as above.

Most people will find this useless but for me when I'm copying large amount of Datas across the network (eg. Backing up a computer to a home server or copying games across computers), I found that this can save me lots of time.

Other than that, Nice FAQ Thread you got here. Keep Up The Good Work :D

Thank you, the transfer speeds with my voyager air when connected as a NAS have been driving me crazy
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Should make some recommendations for routers at difference price ranges. That's something that's asked very frequently.

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Cat6 or Ethernet for router to PC and router to modem and router to NAS?

Pardon? 

Cat 6 is a type of cable used for Ethernet. There's also Cat 5(e), Cat 6(a), Cat 7 etc


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Thanks. I was wondering because I hear CAT 6 is for wiring houses and not a direct connection.

No, that's incorrect.


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Why do I frequently unable to go to certain website? Sometime when I refresh Youtube page I will be prompted that "The webpage is not availabe", also happens to Facebook where I cannot load further down(sometime images won't load) and other weird stuffs....Should I get a new router? Note that while this happens, I can happily browse through other websites.

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Posted · Original PosterOP

Why do I frequently unable to go to certain website? Sometime when I refresh Youtube page I will be prompted that "The webpage is not availabe", also happens to Facebook where I cannot load further down(sometime images won't load) and other weird stuffs....Should I get a new router? Note that while this happens, I can happily browse through other websites.

It's best to post that in its own thread. My guess would be that it has something to do with your DNS, but post it as a separate thread and you'll get better help.

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10 out of 10 recommended

nice thread :)  


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I'd also add a quick section on IPv4 subnets, and what the difference is between a Class A, Class B, and Class C subnet.

 

Class A example: 10.0.0.0/12 - Supports up to 16,777,616 IP addresses - 2^24 - Subnet Mask: 255.0.0.0

Class B example: 172.10.0.1/16 - Supports up to 65,534 IP addresses - 2^16 - Subnet Mask: 255.255.0.0

Class C example: 192.168.0.1/24 - Supports up to 254 IP addresses - 2^8 - Subnet Mask: 255.255.255.0

 

To calculate the amount of IP's in a  subnet, use the power of 2^bits in an octet. There are 8 bits in an octet (X.X.X.X).

 

.0 is your netmask, .1 is usually your gateway, and .255 is usually your broadcast.


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I use a 'moron filter' on tech forums. If I don't respond to your post, considered yourself filtered out.

 

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Posted · Original PosterOP

I'd also add a quick section on IPv4 subnets, and what the difference is between a Class A, Class B, and Class C subnet.

 

Class A example: 10.0.0.0/12 - Supports up to 16,777,616 IP addresses - 2^24 - Subnet Mask: 255.0.0.0

Class B example: 172.10.0.1/16 - Supports up to 65,534 IP addresses - 2^16 - Subnet Mask: 255.255.0.0

Class C example: 192.168.0.1/24 - Supports up to 254 IP addresses - 2^8 - Subnet Mask: 255.255.255.0

 

To calculate the amount of IP's in a  subnet, use the power of 2^bits in an octet. There are 8 bits in an octet (X.X.X.X).

 

.0 is your netmask, .1 is usually your gateway, and .255 is usually your broadcast.

I thought of adding that but decided against it.

It's not a common question. The people who needs to know about it will learn about it in school and for the rest it is pretty irrelevant.

Besides, classed subnets are dead since a long time ago. Someone wrote a subnetting guide on the forum before. Maybe I'll add a link to that thread.

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Unless you have an internal network running IPv6, classed subnets are far from dead. Understanding them is still a focal point in CompTIA N+ and Cisco certification. Ever dealt with MikroTik hardware? You need to understand how subnets work if you deal with RouterOS.

 

Perhaps it is a bit much for Joe User to understand, but we are not exactly a Joe User community.


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I use a 'moron filter' on tech forums. If I don't respond to your post, considered yourself filtered out.

 

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Posted · Original PosterOP

Unless you have an internal network running IPv6, classed subnets are far from dead. Understanding them is still a focal point in CompTIA N+ and Cisco certification. Ever dealt with MikroTik hardware? You need to understand how subnets work if you deal with RouterOS.

Perhaps it is a bit much for Joe User to understand, but we are not exactly a Joe User community.

It's good to understand how it works, but classed networking (classed as in A, B, C etc networks, not /8, /16, /24 etc) is dead since a long time ago. I doubt you'll find many networks not using CIDR these days.

Remember, if you're using classed networking you can't have for example /30 on your links, or /25 for let's say the guest network. As soon as you start subnetting, you're not using classed networks anymore.

I didn't include a guide on subnetting not because "it's too much for the average Joe to understand", but because I don't think it's a frequently asked question. If you look at the first let's say 5 pages on the forum I doubt you'll even find 1 thread asking about it.

If you're going to take a networking course then it'll be one of the first things you learn, but this is mostly a forum where people ask questions about their own setups. They don't come here to study.

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