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Cora_Lie

Screwed Drivers – Signed, Sealed, Delivered

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Posted · Original PosterOP

Interesting...

Quote

Introduction

Common Design Flaw In Dozens of Device Drivers Allows Widespread Windows Compromise

As part of Eclypsium’s ongoing hardware and firmware security research, we have become increasingly interested in the area of insecure drivers and how they can be abused in an attack against a device. Drivers that provide access to system BIOS or system components for the purposes of updating firmware, running diagnostics, or customizing options on the component can allow attackers to turn the very tools used to manage a system into powerful threats that can escalate privileges and persist invisibly on the host.

Recent research and attacks in the wild have made it clear that this area warrants additional scrutiny. For example, other research has revealed vulnerabilities in individual hardware vendor drivers (e.g. ASUS, ASRock, GIGABYTE) that allowed applications with user privileges to read and write with the privileges of kernel. This is obviously a serious escalation of privileges, and we wanted to know if these sorts of vulnerabilities were isolated incidents or examples of a more widespread problem. Secondly, there are multiple examples of attacks in the wild that take advantage of this class of vulnerable drivers. For example, the Slingshot APT campaign installs a kernel rootkit by exploiting drivers with read/write MSR capabilities in order to bypass driver signing enforcement. And the recent LoJax malware abused similar driver functionality to install malicious implants within the firmware of a victim device and persist even across a complete reinstallation of the operating system.

Our analysis found that the problem of insecure drivers is widespread, affecting more than 40 drivers from at least 20 different vendors – including every major BIOS vendor, as well as hardware vendors like ASUS, Toshiba, NVIDIA, and Huawei. However, the widespread nature of these vulnerabilities highlights a more fundamental issue – all the vulnerable drivers we discovered have been certified by Microsoft. Since the presence of a vulnerable driver on a device can provide a user (or attacker) with improperly elevated privileges, we have engaged Microsoft to support solutions to better protect against this class of vulnerabilities, such as blacklisting known bad drivers.

Overview and Impact of the Vulnerabilities

All these vulnerabilities allow the driver to act as a proxy to perform highly privileged access to the hardware resources, such as read and write access to processor and chipset I/O space, Model Specific Registers (MSR), Control Registers (CR), Debug Registers (DR), physical memory and kernel virtual memory. This is a privilege escalation as it can move an attacker from user mode (Ring 3) to OS kernel mode (Ring 0). The concept of protection rings is summarized in the image below, where each inward ring is granted progressively more privilege. It is important to note that even Administrators operate at Ring 3 (and no deeper), alongside other users. Access to the kernel can not only give an attacker the most privileged access available to the operating system, it can also grant access to the hardware and firmware interfaces with even higher privileges such as the system BIOS firmware.

Spoiler

rings.png

How Vulnerabilities Can Be Used In an Attack

A vulnerable driver installed on a machine could allow an application running with user privileges to escalate to kernel privileges and abuse the functionality of the driver. In other words, any malware running in the user space could scan for a vulnerable driver on the victim machine and then use it to gain full control over the system and potentially the underlying firmware. However, if a vulnerable driver is not already on a system, administrator privilege would be required to install a vulnerable driver.

As mentioned earlier, a vulnerable driver could also give an attacker access to the “negative” firmware rings that lie beneath the operating system. As seen with the LoJax malware, this allows malware to attack vulnerable system firmware (e.g. UEFI) to maintain persistence on the device, even if the operating system is completely reinstalled. The problem extends to device components, in addition to the system firmware. Some vulnerable drivers interact with graphics cards, network adapters, hard drives, and other devices. Persistent malware inside these devices could read, write, or redirect data stored, displayed or sent over the network. Likewise, any of the components could be disabled as part of a DoS or ransomware attack.

Since many of the drivers themselves are designed to update firmware, the driver is providing not only the necessary privileges, but also the mechanism to make changes.

Signed and Certified Does Not Mean Safe

It is of particular concern that the drivers in question were not rogue or unsanctioned – in fact, just the opposite. All the drivers come from trusted third-party vendors, signed by valid Certificate Authorities, and certified by Microsoft. Both Microsoft and the third-party vendors will need to be more vigilant with these types of vulnerabilities going forward.

These issues apply to all modern versions of Microsoft Windows and there is currently no universal mechanism to keep a Windows machine from loading one of these known bad drivers. Implementing group policies and other features specific to Windows Pro, Windows Enterprise and Windows Server may offer some protection to a subset of users. Once installed, these drivers can reside on a device for long periods of time unless specifically updated or uninstalled. In addition to the drivers which are already installed on the system, malware can bring any of these drivers along with them to perform privilege escalation and gain direct access to the hardware.

Impacts and Mitigation

The presence of vulnerable drivers can make it increasingly challenging to secure the firmware attack surface. Vulnerable or outdated system and component firmware is a common problem and a high value target for attackers, who can use it to launch other attacks, completely brick systems, or remain on a device for years gathering data, even after the device is wiped. To make matters worse, in this case, the very drivers and tools that would be used to update the firmware are themselves vulnerable and provide a potential avenue for attack. As a result, organizations should not only continuously scan for outdated firmware, but also update to the latest version of device drivers when fixes become available from device manufacturers.

Organizations may also want to keep their firmware up to date, scan for vulnerabilities, monitor and test the integrity of their firmware to identify unapproved or unexpected changes.

List of Affected Vendors

  • ASRock
  • ASUSTeK Computer
  • ATI Technologies (AMD)
  • Biostar
  • EVGA
  • Getac
  • GIGABYTE
  • Huawei
  • Insyde
  • Intel
  • Micro-Star International (MSI)
  • NVIDIA
  • Phoenix Technologies
  • Realtek Semiconductor
  • SuperMicro
  • Toshiba

Some affected vendors are still under embargo due to their work in highly regulated environments and will take longer to have a fix certified and ready to deploy to customers.

You can read the DEF CON presentation here.

Source: https://eclypsium.com/2019/08/10/screwed-drivers-signed-sealed-delivered/

 

 

Who again was saying: "Lazy design! Lazy engineering!"

 

 

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I'm curious what "highly regulated environments" means and what companies couldnt be shown


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Posted (edited) · Original PosterOP
5 minutes ago, S w a t s o n said:

I'm curious what "highly regulated environments" means and what companies couldnt be shown

Let's say... the companies which provide material for Defense, maybe?

 

Edited: If I remember well, there's been such a breach in the pentagon (was it the Pentagon? 🤔 ) where the hacker used the driver vulnerabilities and the network from the IoT inside the premices to slowly make his way toward more sensitive material/information.

In his case he has been caught before he reached that point, but if I remember well (maybe I don't) he manage to infect a total of more than 200 objects and create a complete shadow network inside...

Kind of scary...

I'll try to find the article on that very subject

Edited by Cora_Lie
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3 minutes ago, Cora_Lie said:

Let's say... the companies which provide material for Defense, maybe?

 

I happen to work like 5 minutes away from Raytheon, who is probably one of these censored companies.


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Your Screwed, Im screwed, EVERYBODY IS SCREWED


You can change this by going into your account settings, going down to your signature tab and Typing whatever fits within the rules.

 

Your welcome

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Posted · Original PosterOP

Found it !!!!  ^o^  But not exactly 😛
 

https://arstechnica.com/information-technology/2019/08/microsoft-catches-russian-state-hackers-using-iot-devices-to-breach-networks/

 

Quote

 

Microsoft catches Russian state hackers using IoT devices to breach networks

Fancy Bear servers are communicating with compromised devices inside corporate networks.

Hackers working for the Russian government have been using printers, video decoders, and other so-called Internet-of-things devices as a beachhead to penetrate targeted computer networks, Microsoft officials warned on Monday.

“These devices became points of ingress from which the actor established a presence on the network and continued looking for further access,” officials with the Microsoft Threat Intelligence Center wrote in a post. “Once the actor had successfully established access to the network, a simple network scan to look for other insecure devices allowed them to discover and move across the network in search of higher-privileged accounts that would grant access to higher-value data.”

The officials continued:

After gaining access to each of the IoT devices, the actor ran tcpdump to sniff network traffic on local subnets. They were also seen enumerating administrative groups to attempt further exploitation. As the actor moved from one device to another, they would drop a simple shell script to establish persistence on the network which allowed extended access to continue hunting. Analysis of network traffic showed the devices were also communicating with an external command and control (C2) server.

Microsoft researchers discovered the attacks in April, when a voice-over-IP phone, an office printer, and a video decoder in multiple customer locations were communicating with servers belonging to “Strontium,” a Russian government hacking group better known as Fancy Bear or APT28. In two cases, the passwords for the devices were the easily guessable default ones they shipped with. In the third instance, the device was running an old firmware version with a known vulnerability. While Microsoft officials concluded that Strontium was behind the attacks, they said they weren’t able to determine what the group’s ultimate objectives were.

Further Reading

Hackers infect 500,000 consumer routers all over the world with malware

Last year, the FBI concluded the hacking group was behind the infection of more than 500,000 consumer-grade routers in 54 countries. Dubbed VPNFilter, the malware was a Swiss Army hacking knife of sorts. Advanced capabilities included the ability to monitor, log, or modify traffic passing between network end points and websites or industrial control systems using Modbus serial communications protocol. The FBI, with assistance from Cisco's Talos security group, ultimately neutralized VPNFilter.

Fancy Bear was one of two Russian-sponsored groups that hacked the Democratic National Committee ahead of the 2016 presidential election. Strontium has also been linked to intrusions into the World Anti-Doping Agency in 2016, the German Bundestag, and France’s TV5Monde TV station, among many others. Last month, Microsoft said it had notified almost 10,000 customers in the past year that they were being targeted by nation-sponsored hackers. Strontium was one of the hacker groups Microsoft named.

Microsoft has notified the makers of the targeted devices so they can explore the possibility of adding new protections. Monday’s report also provided IP addresses and scripts organizations can use to detect if they have also been targeted or infected. Beyond that, Monday’s report reminded people that, despite Strontium's above-average hacking abilities, an IoT device is often all it needs to gain access to a targeted network.

“While much of the industry focuses on the threats of hardware implants, we can see in this example that adversaries are happy to exploit simpler configuration and security issues to achieve their objectives,” the report noted. “These simple attacks taking advantage of weak device management are likely to expand as more IoT devices are deployed in corporate environments.”

 

 

 

 

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18 minutes ago, laminutederire said:

Drivers on linux isn't the most fun experience though...

Its still better than the Swiss cheese that windows really is... X'D

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21 minutes ago, laminutederire said:

Well... if you can't find drivers for shit, of course you won't have a vulnerability involving drivers ;)

 

Well both is a shame of the manufacturer... ;)

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1 hour ago, laminutederire said:

Drivers on linux isn't the most fun experience though...

Cries in broadcom


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On 8/11/2019 at 3:17 PM, Cora_Lie said:

List of Affected Vendors

  • ASRock
  • ASUSTeK Computer
  • ATI Technologies (AMD)
  • Biostar
  • EVGA
  • Getac
  • GIGABYTE
  • Huawei
  • Insyde
  • Intel
  • Micro-Star International (MSI)
  • NVIDIA
  • Phoenix Technologies
  • Realtek Semiconductor
  • SuperMicro
  • Toshiba 

Ummm that's basically everyone...

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Posted · Original PosterOP
32 minutes ago, Beskamir said:

Ummm that's basically everyone...

As we're talking "drivers" here we're missing quite a few names in fact. Knowing also a bunch of names have bin withheld for various reasons.

 

But yes, that's anyway quite alot... Way too much IMO.

Manufacturers basically don't give a s**** on that part of their product.

 

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