In Windows, the right-click menu in File Explorer (including desktop) can have items added to them, sort of like extensions for the right-click menu.
If one is buggy, sadly, it can crash File Explorer. I believe this is what is happening.
It is best to uninstall the program at fault.
You can find programs like ShellExView (http://www.nirsoft.net/utils/shexview.html) which allows you to enable/disable items (restart after change), but they are a bit clunky, I found, and you have to be careful what you do, as it can break your experience with the system. But it might help ring a bell at what the program causing issue might be. It is most likely not Microsoft entry else others would have the issue at a wide scale.
Another factor can be the anti-virus which blocks a start menu entry dll entry from a program, and that crashes File Explorer.