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When you install an application using some install process, you'd think a lot is going on in the background aside from copying files to the install location. But for the most part, that's all it's really doing. Depending on how the application was designed and programmed, it'll be looking for files or libraries in certain places. So if said files or libraries don't already exist, the installer is making sure they get put in the right place. The only other thing that happens is to write some entry in the application manager that this application exists how to uninstall it. All uninstalling then is it's the reverse of this process. However, the uninstaller may not remove everything the installer put on, because some of those files may be libraries that other applications might use. An example of this is if the installer put on a version of Microsoft's Visual C++ runtime. The actual app uninstaller won't remove that because it's a library.
On that note, if all of the support files for the application are in place and anything extra it needs comes with the application, then there's really no need to "install" it. The application won't care it's not in the application manager nor will the OS (unless it's locked down for some reason).
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My experience while dual-booting both Windows 7 and Windows 10 is that more games run on Windows 7, and games run better on Windows 7.
1. Windows 10 has DirectX 12, but Windows 7 has Vulkan, which does the same thing as DirectX 12. And Vulkan seems to be the favourite between the two by current developers, due to its cross-platform abilities and open-source nature. The only games that you'll miss out on by not having Windows 10 and DirectX12 are Microsoft exclusive games (as Microsoft wants to force people to Windows 10 by withholding their games from other markets).
And there ends the only semi / potential benefit of gaming on Windows 10 that I'm aware of.
2. If you play old games, then Windows 7 natively had better compatibility for them. Some games I haven't even been able to get to run in Windows 10. I can't immediately think of the list off the top of my head, but the MechWarrior 4 series is one of the recent ones, and there have been others, too. Granted, MechWarrior 4 Mercenaries still takes some tweaking in Windows 7 to get it running, but at least I was able to get it running.
3. Another point is that, though many older games can be played in Windows 7 and 10 with some tweaking, they might take more tweaking to get working in Windows 10 than in Windows 7. There are some compatibility features that are just present in Windows 7 which are either turned off by default in Windows 10, or are missing and need to be added manually. This can included absent system DLL files, or something like .NET Framework 3.5 for legacy game support which needs to be manually enabled in Windows 10.
4. While some people mention that FPS between Windows 7 and Windows 10 should be mostly similar (some more in one OS, and some more in the other), there are some definite and even serious caveats to that:
- Due to Windows 10's ironically-titled * Game Mode which is turned on by default, Windows 10 seems to lose some FPS in a lot of situations unless that Game Mode is disabled.
- If you play Ubisoft games, they get a chunk more FPS in Windows 7 than they do in Windows 10. Sure, Ubisoft is just bad at PC coding, or whatever else you want to explain it as, but the fact is, Ubisoft games get a chunk more FPS in Windows 7 than they do in Windows 10.
5. Also, Windows 10 interrupts gaming sessions with background downloading, updates, system resets, and the general diminished stability that Windows 10 has compared to Windows 7.
6. Lastly, there are mounds more community guides, fixes, and tweaks designed for older games running in Windows 7 than there are for older games running in Windows 10.
In my view, without a doubt, Windows 7 is more stable, more reliable, and more compatible with a wider range of games than Windows 10 is. And Windows 7 is at least on-par with Windows 10 in the area of FPS. If you just want a rock-solid gaming rig that can do just about everything while not interrupting or obstructing your experiences, then I think that Windows 7 is the way to go, as I think that Windows 10 is a compromised experience both in and out of games.
* LTT made a video comparing Windows 10 running games in Game Mode to running games with Game Mode turned off:
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So, I have not been exactly the most active blog member. I've been going through a job change- from IT Technician to Network Manager at the biggest school in my town. So proud. Anyway, places change, jobs change but people... people never change. A girl came up today asking for a "Geiger counter". If I was a halfwit I'd have no idea what she was on about but I know a few things about science, 3 to be exact. I said I'm the Network manager but she said "my teacher told me to go to the technician". "Well, maybe your teacher had the science technician in mind"? Damn.
Over and out. I'll have probably less blog entries now since this sort of thing is rare unlike my previous job...
While you might have thought that I abandoned this place, I haven't, it's just that the part prices are getting higher and higher on a pretty much weekly basis, and some components, such as GPUs and RAM, are shooting up in price due to limited stock and overall shortage
But no worries, I can still make pretty good budget builds for light to moderate gaming.
I'm going to do a little twist, I'm going to give nicknames to builds, not just "Budget build" or "Content creation monster".
CPU: Integrated with Motherboard
Motherboard: ASRock - J3710-ITX Mini ITX Pentium J3710 Motherboard ($95.98 @ Newegg)
Memory: Mushkin - Essentials 8GB (1 x 8GB) DDR3-1333 Memory ($44.99 @ Newegg)
Storage: Western Digital - Caviar Green 500GB 3.5" 5400RPM Internal Hard Drive ($26.99 @ Amazon)
Video Card: Zotac - GeForce GT 710 1GB PCIE x1 Video Card ($40.45 @ Amazon)
Case: Rosewill - R363-M-BK MicroATX Mid Tower Case w/400W Power Supply ($44.99 @ Amazon)
Prices include shipping, taxes, and discounts when available
Generated by PCPartPicker 2017-08-07 04:53 EDT-0400
CPU: AMD - Athlon X4 845 3.5GHz Quad-Core Processor ($54.88 @ OutletPC)
Motherboard: Asus - A68HM-E Micro ATX FM2+ Motherboard ($40.89 @ OutletPC)
Memory: Team - Vulcan 8GB (1 x 8GB) DDR3-1600 Memory ($51.99 @ Newegg)
Storage: Corsair - Force LS 60GB 2.5" Solid State Drive ($46.99 @ Amazon)
Storage: Toshiba - P300 1TB 3.5" 7200RPM Internal Hard Drive ($42.49 @ Amazon)
Video Card: PowerColor - Radeon RX 560 2GB Red Dragon OC V3 Video Card ($93.98 @ Newegg)
Case: DIYPC - MA08-BK MicroATX Mini Tower Case ($31.98 @ Newegg)
Power Supply: EVGA - 430W 80+ Certified ATX Power Supply ($34.88 @ OutletPC)
Prices include shipping, taxes, and discounts when available
Generated by PCPartPicker 2017-08-07 05:02 EDT-0400
CPU: AMD - Ryzen 5 1400 3.2GHz Quad-Core Processor ($156.88 @ OutletPC)
Motherboard: ASRock - AB350M Micro ATX AM4 Motherboard ($59.99 @ Newegg)
Memory: Crucial - 8GB (1 x 8GB) DDR4-2133 Memory ($59.85 @ Amazon)
Storage: Western Digital - Caviar Blue 1TB 3.5" 7200RPM Internal Hard Drive ($59.88 @ OutletPC)
Video Card: Zotac - GeForce GTX 1060 6GB 6GB Mini Video Card ($264.99 @ SuperBiiz)
Case: Rosewill - FBM-X1 MicroATX Mini Tower Case ($26.99 @ Amazon)
Power Supply: Corsair - CX (2017) 450W 80+ Bronze Certified ATX Power Supply ($23.98 @ Newegg)
Prices include shipping, taxes, and discounts when available
Generated by PCPartPicker 2017-08-07 07:45 EDT-0400
CPU: Intel - Core i5-6600K 3.5GHz Quad-Core Processor ($219.29 @ OutletPC)
CPU Cooler: Cooler Master - MasterLiquid Lite 120 66.7 CFM Liquid CPU Cooler ($39.99 @ Amazon)
Motherboard: ASRock - Z170 Pro4S ATX LGA1151 Motherboard ($77.98 @ Newegg)
Memory: Team - Elite Plus 8GB (1 x 8GB) DDR4-2133 Memory ($60.99 @ Newegg)
Storage: Team - L5 LITE 120GB 2.5" Solid State Drive ($50.98 @ Newegg)
Storage: Western Digital - AV-GP 2TB 3.5" 5400RPM Internal Hard Drive ($59.99 @ Amazon)
Video Card: Asus - GeForce GTX 1070 8GB Video Card ($399.99 @ Newegg)
Case: Corsair - 100R ATX Mid Tower Case ($42.98 @ Newegg)
Power Supply: EVGA - SuperNOVA G2 550W 80+ Gold Certified Fully-Modular ATX Power Supply ($72.98 @ Newegg)
Prices include shipping, taxes, and discounts when available
Generated by PCPartPicker 2017-08-07 07:41 EDT-0400
Thanks for viewing this and I hope you'll have fun time with these builds!
Comment for any suggestions on optimizing these builds!
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Work-in-progress compilation of known good value speakers. This list will mostly be limited to two-channel bookshelf type speakers under $500.
Speakers that have a built-in amplifier, and sometimes DAC.
- Behringer Truth B2031A
- JBL LSR 305
- Micaa PB42X
- Vanatoo Transparent One
Speakers that require an external amplifier.
- Micca MB42X
- Philharmonic Audio The New Affordable Accurate Monitor
Due to sound quality, value, or both.
- Logitech (except z2300)
- Fluance SX6
- Mackie CR3
- Monoprice 6.5" Two-Way
So hi peeps. I'm back, who's back, this guy he's back. Aw yeah!
Been on some form of hiatus but I do wanna finish my upcoming design & start working on physical building my tower case from scratch hopefully this year. Still thinking & re-thinking important stuff and things that'll be totally custom as prototypes which can eventually become a working product. #Crossyourfingers
Haven't made any updates because I'm just busy & need to find myself a job soon.
Audio interference (as defined below under "Symptoms") is a defect in a system due to hardware, software or firmware problems. It is not an inevitable consequence of using an integrated audio codec or sound card.
Purchase of a sound card or external DAC is not necessary to fix this issue in most cases.
STEP 1: Sanity Check (START HERE FIRST)
Before diving into an exhaustive troubleshooting process, do some basic pre-checks:
- Ensure that audio connectors are inserted into the correct jack (headphones in headphone jack, speakers in line-out)
- Ensure that audio connectors have the right wiring for the given jack (e.g. 3-pin plug to 3-pin jack, 4-pin to 4-pin, etc)
- Ensure audio connectors are fully and firmly inserted into audio jacks
- Ensure that software or drivers are properly configured (headphone mode for headphones, speaker mode for speakers)
IMPORTANT NOTE: Make sure that your system supports the type of device you are using. If you are using headphones, make sure that your audio source supports headphones and is CONFIGURED to support headphones. A "tinny" sound may mean that you are trying to use headphones while your audio is in speaker mode.
Audio interference manifests as any of the following sounds coming through speakers, headphones, or other audio recording and playback equipment. Coil whine coming directly from a power supply, GPU, or motherboard capacitor is not audio interference, although it may be related.
- Continuous static, clicks, crackles, or pops; Rice Crispy sounds
- Static or buzzing when moving the mouse, typing on the keyboard, or accessing physical drives
- Static, buzzing, or crackling when in a game or during other heavy 3D workloads
- Continuous hum or buzz around 60Hz and/or its harmonics
- Intermittent buzzing that may follow a regular pattern
The canned solution to audio interference is to get an external DAC or soundcard. This advice frequently results in needless expenditure and may not even address the underlying problem.Spoiler
- Ground loop: A problem where there is more than one path to ground, with differing potential between the two grounds. This usually causes a continuous, audible hum or buzz around 60Hz or its harmonics.
- SLI or Crossfire: Multi-GPU setups may cause various issues with audio processing.
- Overclocking: Overclocks to the CPU, GPU, system RAM, or other components.
- UEFI/BIOS: Out-of-date motherboard BIOS may degrade PCI performance or promote instability.
- Drivers: Out-of-date drivers for audio or other components may cause high latency and degraded performance.
- Software: Extraneous bloatware, particularly those that are audio-related, may reduce performance. Applications that run with a "realtime" priority may also be at fault.
- Power management: OS and BIOS settings designed to save energy such as C1E and EIST.
- Improper grounding: A (very) low quality power supply without proper ground connection or a motherboard not properly seated against the I/O plate may rob the system of a proper path to ground. Older AC wall outlets may also lack a true ground.
- Electrical short: Improper electrical contact between components may cause various problems; an out of place motherboard standoff or contact between add-on cards are possible culprits.
- Internal cabling: Poor quality power supply cables, GPU power splitters, extensions, and poor cable combinations/placement may contribute to power fluctuations and EMI. Low quality cables and adapters are a fire hazard.
- External cabling: Data or analog audio cables running close or parallel to power cables, or any cable - whether data, audio, or AC - that lacks proper shielding/filtering may render the audio chain vulnerable to external RFI and EMI interference.
- Electrical wiring: Improper wiring of AC wall sockets or lack of ground may cause issue with power delivery and proper grounding of components.
- Network over AC (Powerline): Powerline networking causes massive amounts of RFI in the surrounding environment and may cause audible interference in sufficiently sensitive audio gear.
- Component proximity: Placing sensitive audio equipment close to sources of EMI or RFI may introduce audio interference to the signal chain. These sources may include but are not limited to mobile phones, wireless access points, graphics cards, power transformers, and radio transmitters/transceivers.
STEP 2: Diagnostic Process
As audio interference may be caused by an enormous range of problems, the purpose of diagnostics is to narrow down the proximate cause in as systematic fashion as possible. At this point do not directly attempt to solve the problem.
- Perform each check in the following list. If the audio interference issue goes away, you have likely identified the cause. In some cases, no further steps may be required.
- If the troubleshooting step fixes the issue but is not practical for normal use (such as booting in Windows Safe Mode or disabling an overclock), consult the corresponding Solutions and Workarounds section below.
Test different headphones/speakers on the system AND test the same headphones/speakers on a different system
- This will determine if the problem is related to your system or your headphones/speakers
Test all audio jacks/USB ports, both on the case and on the rear motherboard IO panel
- A jack or port may be bad
Reduce system master volume and/or game master volume from 100% to 75-80%
- For microphones: reduce volume and turn down gain/boost if available
Disable all audio effects in the Windows Sound and Audio Devices Properties
- Audio effects in the Windows mixer reduce quality and can cause interference
Check for Driver and Software Issues:
Try different settings in the audio drivers control panel or system audio settings
- Ensure that if you are using headphones that your audio is in headphone mode
- Ensure that if your audio settings have an impedance or gain setting that it is not too high or too low
- Boot Windows in Safe Mode; if the interference stops it is likely caused by a driver
- Disable unused audio devices in the Windows Device Manager
- Check Task Manager for resource hogs and real-time priority processes
- Perform a full virus scan
Check for Power Management Issues:
- Disable C1E (Enhanced halt state) and EIST (Intel SpeedStep) in BIOS
- Set Windows Power Plan to Power Saver or High Performance
- Disable all overclocks (CPU, GPU, RAM, etc)
Check for Hardware Issues:
- Disable unused/non-essential motherboard components at the BIOS level, such as NICs or RAID/SATA controllers
- Disconnect ALL non-audio peripherals (including mouse, keyboard, and display)
- Disconnect front audio header and use motherboard rear-panel or sound card; if you are already using rear-panel audio, try front-panel instead
- Remove discrete graphics cards
- Remove discrete soundcard
Check for Electrical Shorts and Grounding Issues:
- Remove case side panels; check for unwanted electrical contact between components such as wires and electrical contacts
- Disconnect front audio header
- Verify that the motherboard is firmly secured. Standoffs and screws should be firm. Ensure the motherboard is firmly seated in the IO plate, and that the IO plate is firmly seated in the case.
- Verify that the power supply is properly secured in the case and that it is connected to a grounded (3-prong) outlet
Check for Wireless Interference:
- Relocate possible sources of EMI/RFI interference away from the computer and audio equipment (wireless access points, wireless peripherals, mobile phones, microwave ovens, etc)
Unplug other appliances that may be source of interference over AC power
- This includes but is not limited to: household appliances, dimmer light switches, and other computers
- Connect the system a different AC wall socket, preferably on a different circuit breaker
Check External Cabling:
- Try switching out audio signal or data transmission cables for working spares
- If experiencing interference in only one channel of a multi-channel system, swap the channel cables
- Move AC power cables as far away as possible from audio and digital cables, and eliminate parallel runs where possible
- Swap compatible AC power cables or switch them out for a working spare
Check Electrical Wiring:
Obtain and use an AC wall socket tester (usually available for less than $10); if issues are found, try a different outlet or re-wire
- If you do not have a socket tester, try plugging your system into another outlet, preferably a kitchen or bathroom GFCI outlet, which are generally required to be grounded by code
STEP 3: Solutions and Workarounds
- Disable microphone gain or effects in the Windows Sound and Audio Devices Properties
- Test different sampling rates in the Windows Sound and Audio Devices Properties; for example 16 vs 24 bit, 44.1kHz vs 192kHz.
Audio Device Conflict:
Disable unused audio devices in the Windows Sound and Audio Devices Properties OR Windows Device Manager
This includes the HDMI audio output included on many GPUs
- Disable unused recording devices in the Windows Sound and Audio Devices Properties OR Windows Device Manager
- Try peripherals in different USB ports
- Move add-on cards, including GPU, and ensure they are properly seated
- Re-seat auxiliary power cables
- Use different power harness combinations if available from power supply
- Ensure that motherboard and IO plate are properly seated (grounded)
- Disable SLI and remove one card; re-boot and re-enable SLI
Disable unnecessary startup programs and services, especially those that are audio-related
Exercise caution; some startup items might be essential to the proper function of your computer
Flashing the BIOS or changing the CMOS can cause the memory and PCI performance to improve. Occasionally, this can cause performance to degrade. For more information about specific versions or for information about updates, please contact your motherboard manufacturer.
Download and install latest audio drivers from motherboard manufacturer website
You may need to use a beta driver or even downgrade in some situations
Download and install latest graphics drivers from GPU manufacturer website
You may need to use a beta driver or even downgrade in some situations
- Remove and reinstall default Windows audio drivers (uninstall device and scan for hardware changes in Windows Device Manager)
Update other device drivers from motherboard manufacturer website
For unused devices (SATA controllers, etc): Uninstall driver and disable device in BIOS or Windows Device Manager
- Update motherboard BIOS using latest downlaod from motherboard manufacturer website (use caution)
- Ensure that SATA devices are not conflicting with PCI memory resources. Changing to a different controller may help.
- Re-route AND/OR add shielding to the front audio header cable
- Try different power harness combinations from the power supply: for example, if using two PCIe power cables for a GPU, try a single cable with a splitter (if available)
- Move audio signal and data cables away from power cables and AC lines and/or ensure they intersect at 90 degree angles
- Use properly shielded 2.0 spec USB cables for audio:
- Replace defective AC power cables
Verify that all wall-powered peripherals are plugged into the same outlet via an EMI/RFI filtered power strip
- See below under "Electrical wiring/Ground loop" for a more robust line filtering solution
Electrical Wiring/Ground Loop:
Verify that all wall-powered peripherals are plugged into the same outlet via an EMI/RFI filtered power strip:
- For more robust AC line filtering: Tripp Lite LC1200 Line Conditioner 1200W
- Purchase a ground loop isolator of the type appropriate for the audio connection that is causing the issue:
- If your electrical wiring is a fault, you may need to have it fixed by a qualified electrician
Sources and References
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I'm a bit late but I have been studying a lot in my spare time in order to meet my schedule, so please forgive me for my lateness. Anyways.........!
Now the book I am using to study this with has a "skip" section on the handwriting section if your aim is to just read/speak it, but if you wish to persist through this too, I've taken some sample shots of the pages' instructions. If you need clearer images, I went ahead and googled some more references for you that you can get to by clicking the title of the Spoiler Tag. All of the Handwriting section will be under a spoiler, since by itself it is huge and because it is skippable.
Yup. That's the end of that. Feel free to practice it!
More on Russian Pronunciation: Stress
Just like in English (or many other languages) some syllables in Russian are pronounced more prominently than others. In English, for example, consider the differences of "Phótograph" and "Photógraphy". If you don't know the differences of the words, pronounce each carefully. Notice how in "Phótograph" you put more emphasis on the first syllable? And in the second word "Photógraphy" the stress is marked on the second syllable. Stress in Linguistics is signaled by an increased loudness, vowel length, full articulation of a vowel, and changes in pitch. If you need more information on syllables and stress, please consider looking into the links I have provided at the bottom of this entry under "Resources".
Continuing on: In Russian, normal writing does not mark stress visually, just like in English, so it is important to learn the stress of words or the general stress rule. Be careful though with stress in words and most definitely names, since the traditional English pronunciation is often never matches the Russian. For example, English speakers tend to put stress on "влади́мир" (Vladimir) in the first syllable like so "Vládimir", but in Russian stress is always placed on the second syllable, like so "[Vla-de’е-meer]".
Here are some more examples:
- The writer Pasternak is "Пастерна́к" (not Pа́sternak)
- Nabokov is "Набо́ков " (not Nа́bokov)
- Oblomov (a man in Goncharо́v's famous novel) is "Обло́мов" (not О́blomov)
Stress in Russian is heavier than it is in English and much harder to predict which syllable is going to get lucky and get marked for stress. Sometimes you will find that different forms of the same word will have different stresses. For example, in Russian hand "Рука́" and hands "Ру́ки" have two completely different stresses. The first "Рука́" has stress on the end and the second word "Ру́ки" has stress on the first. It is one of the many reasons why you should learn the stress of words you are learning/know of...otherwise, if you do not know the stress, the safest method to proceed is to read it without stress at all, syllable by syllable.
Next we delve into a bit more of the Linguistics of the language itself. If your goal is to just be understood, feel free to skip this. But if you are like me, you want to know how things work and why. If you are, the following six points will show you the small differences between Moscow Russian is written and the way it is pronounced.
Many call it the indication of a good Russian accent and from what I have heard and dealt with, I'd agree with them. I learned more about what this is actually called (and generally more about it) from a friend (@aalsuvorov) who has been willing to educate me further in Russian. What it is is the correct pronunciation of soft consonants and you might be wondering what "soft consonants" are. Well, "soft" means the consonant is pronounced with a simultaneous y sound. You can tell if a consonant is soft if it is followed by any of these letters/sounds:
е ё и ю я or the soft sign "Ь".
The main thing you must remember to do is pronounce the y sound with the consonant before it. Many people end up pronouncing the two separately instead of simultaneously. For example the word "сове́т" ('council') is pronounced [s-a-vy-е́-t] — that's five sounds. The vy (soft в) is not two sounds, but one! In English, we say it "s-o-v-i-e-t", six, instead of five sounds!
Hard Consonants vs Soft Consonants;
'Hard' consonants are pronounced just like in English, without the simultaneous y sound like in soft consonants. Earlier, in "", we learned there are twenty consonants. Of them, with the exception of "" and "", are all hard consonants. "" and "" are always soft! Of the other eighteen, fifteen of them will tell you if they are to be pronounced soft, as they will always be marked with any of "е ё и ю я" or the soft sign shown above. For example, "Л" [l] is hard but "Ль" [ly] is soft! That is to say, in Russian "[l]" and "[ly]" are two different sounds, but to many English speakers they probably just think it is a variant (allophone) of [l].
For example, compare the [l] in "people" to the [l] in "leaf". Do you hear the difference (different dialects might make this hard though)? The [l] in "people" is like "Л" (hard) while the [l] in "leaf" is like "Ль" (soft). Do you notice the differences? Here are some more examples of hard and soft consonants in Russian:
- Мйло [meela] 'nice' - hard л
- Мйля [meelya] 'mile' - soft ль
- Лук [look] 'onion' - hard l
- Люк [lyook] 'hatch' - [ly] is soft
- Мат [mat] 'bad language', 'abuse' - hard т
- Мать [maty] 'mother' - soft ть
- Мать [maty] 'mother' - hard М
- Мять [myaty] 'to crumple' - soft [my]
Before И the [y] element is less audible but please be aware that regardless the consonant is still soft.
- Бить [beety] 'to beat' - soft Б
However, if the 'Б' was hard, the vowel would not be и but ы. For example:
- Быть [bity] 'to be' - hard Б
Consonants that are always hard: Ж Ц Ш
Even though the letters е ё и ю я ь mark the preceding consonant soft, there are exceptions...like most languages. Thankfully not as much as French, though. They are the following: Ж Ц Ш. These letters are always—always—pronounced hard (no [y] sound!), no matter the following letter. Like the word Жена́ 'wife' is pronounced [zhe-nа́] —the [y] of the letter e [ye] simply disappears.And in Жёны 'wives' is pronounced as if it were written like Жо́ны [zhо́-ni]. Ты зна́ешь 'you know' is actually pronounced as if it were written like Ты зна́еш [znа́-yesh]. The soft sign has no effect and has become historical in usage only.
Oh, and before I forget to add it...after the letters 'Ж', 'Ц' and 'Ш' you should hear the vowel и [ee] pronounced as if it were actually ы [ i ]. As so:
- Жить [zhity] 'to live'
- Цирк [tsirk] 'circus'
Next time on Learning Russian! (lol) we learn about voiced and unvoiced consonants! How fun! Stick around and just remember...practice makes perfect! Or so they say...
Recent EntriesLatest Entry
A new entry, been some time... lot of changes in my life. Most of you have probably noticed my activity on the Forum has dropped off a lot over the past while. Not nearly as involved in the Folding section as I want to be. I really need to thank @tobben and @Imakuni for all their help in supporting the folding team and users on the forum.
This past fall my wife and I separated. It was something coming for a long time. I am doing much better now. But of course had to scramble, lot of changes and my life has been pretty busy sorting all that out.
I now have my own place and getting settled in, adjusting to the new normal. :)
Starting all the folding systems back up, and helps I don't pay for power now. Right now I have 5 GPU's folding away. I would like to get more, I have tons of spare parts, just no spare GPU's. If anyone wants to make a GPU donation, I will accept. :D All Titan cards welcome. lol
Have also spent time consolidating a lot of systems as room is a premium now. Ungraded my unRaid server to the latest version and have taken advantage of Dockers and VM functionality. With 3 Dockers and 2 VM's running I was able to eliminate 6 systems I had going and make better use of the unRaid hardware, so a win-win situation.
Looking forward to getting more Folding going and living life. :)
The unRaid server was upgraded with a MSI Xpower motherboard, a 4790K and 16GB of ram to handle all the load. Also swapped out the Antec 1200 case as it didn't support XL-ATX and got myself a CM Storm Stryker. Must say, very nice case.
Then I upgraded my main rig with the new Thermaltake Core X2 and a bunch more radiator space to handle both 780's folding full time and not need to run the fans at a god awful speed.
Need to swap one of the GPU folding systems into a new case today with better airflow, cards are overheating.
Well, that's all for now kiddies... Happy Whaling!
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It is generally accepted that macOS is immune to viruses and malware. In general, this is true, because, for the entire history of the operating system, viruses written for it can be counted on the fingers.
I want to understand why this is happening and what to do in order not to get infected with those rare instances of malware.
Among my acquaintances who use Mac device, there is no a single person who has an antivirus or someone who would say that he got a malicious code or any virus. There are several reasons for this. Of course, one can argue that macOS X is a Unix-like operating system and, therefore, it is invulnerable. We reject this primitive thought since there are some viruses for macOS, which means that the system, like any other, is vulnerable.
The main reason why there are so few viruses written for Mac is that there are very few Mac devices themselves. If we compare the number of Windows personal computers and Macs that exist today in the world, it turns out that the Mac devices make only 7%. Attackers who want to steal credit card numbers are more likely to be interested in the audience of Windows PC users because of their large number.
Some say that to protect your Mac from the hypothetical possibility of installing malicious software, you need to install an antivirus. This is the most logical solution, according to most users.
Here is the list of viruses that I found information about:
1982: Elk Cloner
1995-1996: Concept / Laroux
1998: SevenDust 666 / AutoStart 9805
2004 and 2006: Renepo / Leap-A
2009: iWorkS-A Trojan
2012: Flashback / SabPub
What we have here: only 10 malicious programs. In my opinion, only MacDefender represented a real threat to users of macOS - stealing credit card numbers. As you understand, security updates have already come out for these viruses, and they do not represent threats.
Let's return to antiviruses. What do you think, given the information written above, how often do you need to update the antivirus database for Mac? The answer is once a year or less.
Antivirus software for macOS is more harmful than useful. There is convincing evidence that Kaspersky AntiVirus very actively collects information about the user and sends it to its servers. There is information that computers with Kaspersky AntiVirus can participate in DDoS-attacks at the discretion of the developer of this antivirus. It's worth thinking about whether you need a Trojan program and also pay for it.
You still have to be careful not to get malware on your Mac device. Some malicious software tools like Safe Finder may also collect your data or show unwanted ads.
So the first phone I ever got was when I was about 12, it was a Samsung Intensity, and my god was this phone awesome. It's slide out keyboard made it so I could text like a freak and the battery would easily last 2 days if I forgot to charge overnight it as I often did. To go with it was my first plan. Originally my mom was going to go with a texting based plan that came with 100 texts and 30 or so minutes but I convinced my mom to spend a few more bucks to get the unlimited texting plan. Boy was she happy when she got my first bill. Within a month I had managed to send more than 1,500 text messages. Oh yea, and I had some (at the time) cool looking skin for the phone that fell off as the months went on.
The next phone that I got was the Xperia Play. I was able to get this around 2 years after using my Intensity because of my moms Twitter popularity. Rogers contacted my mom and said that they would give my mom, my brother, and myself, any phone of our choice for free. They gave us a list of a few phones and we took our picks. My brother, being more tech savvy than me at the time chose the Samsung Galaxy S2, my mom picked some random Windows phone, and I picked the Xperia Play. I picked it because I was 13 and addicted to stupid little mobile games. We got the phones and I was immediately hooked on all the silly Sony Play games. I used the phone pretty aggressively until the day it died. I was at my step-cousins cottage and we were going from inside to the outdoor hot tub. I slipped the Play into the pocket of my swimsuit (which I was wearing basically 24/7 at that point) and walked outside. Without thinking at all, I ran into the hot tub and sat in it for a matter of about 30 seconds until I realized my mistake. I yanked it out of my pocket and ran inside to drain it out. Due to the fact that I have an Asian step family we had lots of rice on hand. We tossed the phone into a bag of rice and left it there overnight. I came back to it the next day expecting this magical trick to work but came back disappointed. It was dead.
Following my Play's death, I went back to the phone that my brother had been using from the free Rogers deal, the Galaxy S2. This phone was amazing. It was my first real android phone and It was able to survive just about anything (given that it did have an Otterbox Commuter case) This phone was my introduction into the tech and app world. In my year or so of using this phone, it must have survived hundreds of drops. From everything to rivers, concrete floors, stairs, and if i'm honest, some on purpose drops (to demonstrate its toughness of course). I can't remember anytime that this phone failed me and it always seemed to have enough juice to just barely make it through the day. The day it left my hands was a sad day but also a good day because I got it's successor!
I got the S3 (and sold my S2) around late 2013 when my brother jumped on the Nexus 5. This phone was like those Russian dolls that split open only to reveal another doll. It kept giving and giving. It could run anything I really needed, had a massive screen compared to what In was used to and my god did it look good. I treated this phone like it was my kid until I metaphorically dropped my kid on his head. It was around Mid-April 2014 and I was in my weight-lifting class using it to listen to music. I went to do a bench press that my friend was kidding around about and told me to do. I knew that I wasn't going to be able to do more than one but I gave it my best shot anyway. I set my phone off to the side a little bit and proceeded to try the press I did it once until my arms gave up and I dropped the 50lb weights off to the side. "YO YO WATCH OUT YOU ALMOST HIT YOUR PHONE." I turned to them wide eyed and picked up the phone. Goodbye sweet love. The weight had landed on the backside of the phone and right on the bottom corner. It smashed the screen but the phones internals were fine. They thought I was kidding when I said it was dead. I was not. The class was over and I walked calmly the locker to get changed. I wasn't as upset as I was expecting to be considering that I had just killed a fairly relevant phone. I went home following the end of school and told my parents about my phones death.
After losing most of my parents trust with technology, they gave me the phone that we had lying around for a few years. My brothers old Xperia Arc. This phone was my brothers before we had gotten the free ones. It felt like a dinosaur to me coming from the Galaxy S3. It can't run even the simplest of apps without lagging out and sometimes just outright crashing. If all goes as planned, I will not have this piece of junk for much longer. Thanks to the gods at OnePlus, once the Black 64gb version of the One is released I will be fighting until the last breath to get an invite and buy it.
Here's pictures of all the phones I have used in order of owning/using and in the colour I had them in:
Samsung Galaxy S2
Samsung Galaxy S3
Xperia Arc (Current)
Future Oneplus ONE
Thanks for reading!
Here is the expanded-details OP text for the thread: Facebook is stealthily blocking / hiding posts and post-shares featuring verified information inconvenient to US / UK propagandaQuote
What is especially pernicious is that Facebook deliberately imposes this censorship in a secretive way. The primary mechanism when a block is imposed by Facebook is that my posts to Facebook are simply not sent into the timelines of the large majority of people who are friends or who follow. I am left to believe the post has been shared with them, but in fact it has only been shown to a tiny number. Then, if you are one of the few recipients and do see the post and share it, it will show to you on your timeline as shared, but in fact the vast majority of your own friends will also not receive it. Facebook is not doing what it is telling you it is doing – it shows you it is shared – and Facebook is deliberately concealing that fact from you.
Twitter have a similar system known as “shadow banning”. Again it is secretive and the victim is not informed. I do not appear to be shadow banned at the moment, but there has been an extremely sharp drop – by a factor of ten – in the impressions my tweets are generating.
The person this information comes from, Craig Murray, is a former UK ambassador to Uzbekistan, who is probably most known for whistle-blowing US, UK, and Uzbekistan partnership in torturing people in 2005, and also for delivering the leaked DNC emails to WikiLeaks during the 2016 US federal election. Recently, Craig Murray exposed a series of lies the UK government made about a chemical attack that occurred in Salisbury, UK, which resulted in the UK government backtracking on many of its former claims, and denying having made some of them despite its video interviews and social media posts (which the UK government started deleting before that too was called out) proving otherwise.
For more detailed coverage of the Craig Murray's recent activity which has likely led to Facebook censoring his content, see my LTT blog post on the subject.
This information comes from Craig Murray, who is a former UK ambassador to Uzbekistan. Craig has been in the news some recently because of his blasting apart many of the lies the UK government was pushing about the Salisbury, UK chemical attack. Craig Murray used to work in the UK's Foreign & Commonwealth Office, which communicates with the UK's Porton Down chemical weapons facility that analyzed samples of the Salisbury chemical agent and reported its findings to the UK government.
The UK government had tried to propagandize the public against Russia by claiming that its Porton Down chemical facility had verified the Salisbury chemical agent to have come from Russia. But because Craig Murray still has contacts within the FCO, and because he knew by first-hand experience from his time as a UK diplomat the type of manipulation and deception that goes on behind the scenes with government narratives that aim to bias public opinion towards or against an objective, he reached out to his FCO contacts about the Salisbury "Novichok" chemical agent, and heard that what the UK government was telling the public was a lie - the Porton Down facility had been completely unable to identify the source of the chemical used in the Salisbury attack.
It has also since been verified by many sources that almost any country is capable of making "Novichok", a chemical whose recipe has been publicly available since the mid 1990s (using the Look Inside feature, it's on page 449) and which has been researched by many EU countries since 1999, and which is known to have been produced by Iran in 2016. And the UK and US have both made it, while the US even patented weaponized "Novichok" in 2015.
Many of these details were brought to light by Craig Murray, who is a former UK ambassador to Uzbekistan, where Novichok was developed and tested. Craig Murray had also visited the Uzbekistan facility during its dismantling, which was done by the USA in 1999, with the US becoming responsible for the facility's housed remaining stockpiles of chemical agents, to dispose or do otherwise with them.
As a result of Craig's reporting the truth, the UK government was cornered into admitting it had been lying to everybody when it said that any analysis had confirmed Russia to be responsible. The UK government was then caught lying about its earlier lying about the Salisbury agent, and was also caught deleting a Twitter post in which the UK government asserted that Porton Down had verified the Salisbury agent to have come from Russia.
Craig Murray also reported on the internal negotiations between the UK government and Porton Down, where the UK government had coerced Porton Down into signing-off use of the phrase 'of a type developed by Russia' when describing the Salisbury attack agent - which was designed to manipulate and connive the public into assuming that the Salisbury agent came from Russia, despite the only semi-accurate meaning of 'of a type developed by Russia' being that it could refer to the fact that the USSR originally developed the "Novichok" class of chemicals.
The UK government thought that so long as 'of a type developed by Russia' had almost a sliver of truth to it, that that would make it permissible to use to convince the public of a wholly different understanding: That it implied the Salisbury agent had any kind of association with Russia. Of course, the "Novichok" family of chemicals wasn't developed by Russia, either, but by the USSR - so the UK government and Porton Down's agreed 'of a type developed by Russia' phrase was a lie, no matter which way it's looked at.
Craig Murray has now just reported what he thinks is plausible Western responsibility for the poisoning of the Skripals:QuoteQuote
I meant to add that the policeman who ‘just happened’ to be around was almost certainly the special branch ‘minder’ who was keeping Yulia under surveillance. The media are not allowed to mention the existence of a D notice.
Those of us who have been in the belly of the beast and have worked closely with the intelligence services, really do know what they and the British government are capable of. They are not “white knights”.
I would add it has been very plain from day one that there is a D notice on Pablo Miller.
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I haven't done anything that would require benchmarking in ages. Last change made to my old log file was 2014 after I changed some case fans and wanted to check if they did something to temps. This July I changed graphics card which is something I would say anyone should run their own sequence after. So after any bigger change (CPU/GPU mainly) anyone should run same benchmarks they have run before change. I will come back to this in a moment. In my situation need was really big. I went from 2011 midrange card to 2013 top end card. Something that in paper is bit better than 280X, card that I was eyeing for upgrade year ago. Yes, talking about used cards. Upgrade was from GTX 560Ti factory OC'd to reference GTX 780. Benchmarks would look awesome. In numbers if not actually, but thats more about nature of tests themselves.
So why this post? Well, so I can refer to it when someone asks advice about benchmarking. Since my last run was 3 years ago and I haven't really played any new games, all my game benchmarks are pretty bad choices. Like NFS Shift and Battlefield Bad Company 2. There might be Battlefield 3, but thats it. This new batch won't have any real gameplay. Because of two reasons. 1. I still lack good games for realistic benchmarking, Battlefield 4 is probably on the heavier side. So nah on games. And 2. I don't want to buy games just because I could get good benchmark out of them. Even games with benchmark tools would be just for it since I don't play 3rd person single player adventure/action games (Metro 2033, Tomb Raider, Witcher 3). This will be list of benchmarks which are free and provide good base for anyone looking to create their own sequence.
1. What is my "sequence"?
I use term "sequence" to describe procedure where I run multiple tests, check temps and mark down scores. Marking down scores and temps is good practice in general. Not just for bragging, but to check how much you spending money actually improves the systems performance. So my sequence involves having few monitoring software open, taking numbers in notepad and running several benchmarks one by one. Yes, it will take some time, some 1.5h for me. But you need to do it once and then you can just refer notes later if someone asks something. I've used temp readings many times to advice on high temps under stress tests and idles on my older hardware.
To actual point. I have 10 software, 12 tests, 1 main monitoring software with 2 others running, notepad with template for scores and temps and FRAPS for one odd out fps reading. I cover tests later. I happen to have 2 monitors, but all this can be done on one monitor. 2nd is good for having all monitoring software there. Like in this manor:
So MSI Afterburner is present because of habit of looking at graphs. I actually don't use it for GPU temp monitoring anymore, but habit of looking at fan and temp graphs remains. Main screen is where I look at GPU temp when test is running. Mainly since its new piece and I want to see how my fan settings are holding. Main software here is RealTemp with GPU temp monitoring open. I reset Maximum readings after every test to get reliable readings for all tests individually. Under them all is my normal main monitoring software, OpenHardwareMonitor. Notepad is on main monitor since I don't need it until after test finishes.
Things I do and would recommend. I have habit of doing this after cold boot. I would recommend booting before running sequence. Its easiest way, since there's least amount of extra software running on background. For this sequence I added way of closing all extra stuff I have open. Skype, several driver software's, basically anything except multimonitor manager, fan controls and virus scanner. Some might close virus scanner too, but I don't mind it. Then another boot after all testing is done. To get everything working as normal. I would recommend setting any fan profiles like you are going to use them before running test on new components. Makes more realistic comparison. As for temps, I have idle's. Which I will take after first test has run. Reason being that idle's coming directly from boot will be lower than what you are going to see any other time. For testing temps I use max temp. Its most relevant. Since RealTemp shows temps for all cores, I use average with easy count. Take highest and lowest and split difference with upward rounding. Like 66C and 58C would be 62C (8/2=4, 58+4=62C) or 67C and 60C would be 64C (7/2=3.5, round up 4).
2. Tests and score keeping
Let's start with synthetic benchmarks. I will give some background on why I use software listed here, where to get it and what settings to use (if needed).
If you have had gaming PC for some time, you know this software already. Futuremark's (Yay! for Finnish company) 3DMark has been industry standard for almost 20 years. Its combined benchmark, meaning that it tests both GPU and CPU within single run. First 3DMark I've used is 3DMark03. I've had 05, 06. Vantage and 11. 3DMark06 was used for long time because of its DX9 support. Until Vantage with DX10.1 it was only thing to test new hardware reliably. Thats important. Because of the way benchmarks work, if you change something the score will also differ. So comparing two results between different versions of software can cause issues. I first noticed this fact with FurMark.
But back to 3DMark. Free version has 3-4 tests. Most common is FireStrike which is for current gen gaming PCs. You can run it with lower end hardware if you are like me and want before upgrade scores to compare. I also used tad lighter SkyDiver. Mainly because I couldn't get 06 running anymore. So let both tests run, mark score to notepad, mark max temps for GPU and CPU, remember to let temps go back to "idle" in between and reset max readings before running the test. Thats it. Free version doesn't have any settings to toggle. Only thing I would like to toggle is Demo.
Yes, they actually have product name in caps. Maxon makes professional 3D modeling and animation software as their main source of income. But Cinebench has become one reason for their homepage to get constant traffic. It has 2 tests, individually for CPU and GPU. GPU uses OpenCL, CPU renders image using all available threads. Cinebench gives some comparison for similar systems, but I wouldn't look that graph too much. I also don't think it as very taxing software. Run tests for both CPU and GPU, with temp normalization in between.
This is among those software with this batch that has single part focus on testing. I don't have just for CPU, but I might look into that part more. Intel Extreme Tuning Utility has CPU testing, but I don't know if it works with AMD. Anyway, having whole benchmark just for single component has some advantages. Like if you'd like to test air cooling myth about radiating GPU heat. So running GPU only test would raise only GPUs temp notably and do something to CPUs temp also. I don't look at utilization when I run these tests, but it could be one thing to check also if you want to gather more data.
ALLBenchmark's test is different from the two above because it has very noticeable sound effects and music. Otherwise its just another combined benchmark. I've used it since I heard about it from OC3D's TinyTomLogan. TTL is someone who's opinion on OC and CPU performance means a lot to me. I've picked other go-to software from him with OCCT, a stress test software for CPU. But back to Catzilla. Basic version only has 540p benchmark, but you get 720p one by creating account to their site. Easy thing with Google, Twitter or Facebook linking. Rest of the stuff is like before.
ASUS' RealBench is combined test which uses real life tasks for benchmarking. Image manipulation, rendering, video encoding and multitasking. Besides giving total score, you get score per test. I mark all of them down. I got to see how much GPU did bottleneck CPU on CPU heavy tasks. Result? Not that much. But some.
This is new to my lineup. I haven't looked much into what it actually measures. But looks to be lighter side combined test. I would say it replaces Novabench I had on earlier lineup. Results are given in three categories, for Gaming, Desktop and Workstation in percentage. I marked those percentages as results.
These two from Unigine are pure GPU tests. Heaven is what is commonly used for GPU OC testing, temp testing and benchmarking by reviewers. Valley is bit heavier, so I'd say running them both is good practice. Like with 3DMark, there are more tests you can use. I used highest presets for both, Extreme for Heaven and ExtremeHD for Valley.
Like said earlier, I don't have real gameplay benchmarks in this set. So this game from 2013 is lower end gaming benchmark for me. It has preset for Mazximum settings, but I pumped those bit more. You can check my settings from PDF attached. I use score as scoring, but you could have also given FPS.
This game engine benchmark is free on Steam. Released 2014 by Oxide Games, guys behind Ashes of Singularity, its has capability of simulating space battle game. There are few options to simulate different style of games. I used Attract with Extreme settings. Score will be given as average FPS. You can select some other combination, important part being that same settings are used before and after any upgrade made to keep score consistent.
This one is something I cooked up. Its newer than both other gaming style benchmarks, its done with Unreal Engine 4 and I have no clue if it has any relation to real world or not. Its Demo made by group called Ekspert for Assembly LAN Demo Compo 2015, in which it placed 2nd. There are few remarks I want to make about demo's and demoscene before going actual benchmarking part. Demoscene is all about digital art. Animation, coding, graphics, music, indie game development. At least in Europe, many software and game dev companies have their roots deep into demoscene. If you are doing the things I mentioned above and want to show off your skills by competing, maybe look if there are parties/compo's held in your area. The two known Finnish companies with demoscene background are Futuremark (surprise, surprise) and Rovio. One for making first PC demo at the time when Amiga and Commodore 64 were main platforms, other for making mobile game back when those were played on Nokia N-Cage's.
Now back to benchmarking part. Demo2 doesn't have built-in scoring system. So I've used FRAPS to calculate average FPS. Running 1080p version gives warning about using Fraps for recording purposes, but loads just fine after that. I start benchmark counter as soon as demo starts and check scores afterwards. Nothing more to it.
As I said along the lines, I would like to have more modern game benchmarks, as well as CPU only benchmark. So I will be looking around for those and adding them here. If someone reading this has ideas about free or cheap games with included benchmarks, please let me know.
3. Scores and comparison
At this point you should have raw data text file. Something like this one I'm using:
Which includes system specs for each test cycle. This would be the file you are updating during tests. Feel free to use it as template or comparison. But what now? Well, you can just compare by eye results, use it to quickly refer temps and so on. But what if you want know how much better system performance is after upgrade. Thats where Excel (or Sheets, Calc and so on) comes in. Copying results to Excel (&co) can be annoying, but do it once to get template correct and maybe adjust .txt file to help in future. Here's my .xlsx for reference. Also free to be used as template or comparison:
In file I've got some extended system info and notes about tests. Which are pretty much same as in here. But main thing is +- column (Excel hint: add < ' > in front of symbol to exclude any automatic formula). It calculates how many percentage better new score is compared to last. Works best when score changes less than 100% or new score is over twice the value of old. Formula used is pretty simple:
Shown in percentage. You can add color coding and such if needed. If new value are over twice bigger, remove <-1> to get accurate score.
There's some oddness in that file in CPU temps. I had issue with Speedfan missing fan profiles for 2 front intakes. Which I fixed after I had changed to new GPU. So those are something to ignore.
I hope this helps those who are new to benchmarking. Note that this is just how I do things and you should be taking it as guide or advice. Make it your own. I will be doing some fixes along the lines, but as I will not be getting major upgrade in few years, its quite possible I'll be making another batch of tests when next upgrade is on me.
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Minor disclaimer: This is a continuation of other blog posts. This is also not tech related whatsoever. It's more personal than anything, but I might as well continue to update you guys on where I stand.
Just a quick, unprofessional post which I am indeed, for the second time, reference my initial blog post of ambitions I made over a year ago.
Things are working out for the better...slowly, but surely, hence the title of this post. My current goal is to play at Stanford University via full ride football scholarship and while that seems extremely far fetched, I plan on making it happen. So far many coaches have contacted personally and I've met one in person (hopefully I'll meet a few more these upcoming weeks through spring football), and right now, things are looking good. Not spectacular or even great, but good, and well...I can't complain much.
Regardless of my current situation, the power of the offer (basically, the school offers the student athlete a potential spot on the team without any pay of tuition) is unbelievable. I just need 1. One measly one to keep my hopes and keep on trugging, and honestly, when one comes, several more come because exposure hits that newly offered player like a joyous plague.
Anyway, school is ending on May 21 and I'm praying to God that I will get something from someone before then. Welp, I guess I'll end this off with one of my favorite pump songs ever:
That's it for now guys.
Question of the Day: What goal are you guys working for currently?
This is the review of the Shure SE215, not to be confused with the SE215LTD which is a variant of the SE215 introduced at a later date.
Coming from basically using <$40 earphones i did not know what to expect from this. I was utterly disappointed in the how the earphones fit in my ears and how lackluster they sound, i really thought that the sounds quality would have dramatically changed after switching from low grade entry tier audio products. Low bass response, confused mid and highs.
Which leads to the next point, after a period of 5 months, i learnt how to use the included foam and silicon tips properly to obtain a great seal, the included silicon tips provided provide a balanced sound and as i would like to rate it 7/10 in terms of noise isolation and with the included foam tips, 9/10 in terms of noise isolation. (Medium sized comply eartips are 8.5/10)
After my stock cable was damaged with the right side being faulty, i replaced the stock cable with the FiiO RC-SE1 replacement cables.
I found these to be more detailed and less warm in terms of audio quality than the stock cables, with slight but noticeable treble boosts probably because of a higher Silver content in the SPC(Silver plated copper) wires.
However, the micro-phonics on this particular cable are downright atrocious. If the stock cables would have 7/10 in terms of micro-phonics, these new replacement cables would have gotten a 1/10.
I straight up discourage anyone who gets annoyed easily when music is not playing and the cables rubs with each other. Otherwise, when playing music the micro-phonics can barely be heard and the cable is of great quality and certain to last for a long time.
I am going to try out the ATH E40s in a few weeks time and maybe i can provide a comparison of that when i get myself on them :D.
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CPU: AMD - Ryzen 5 1600 3.2GHz 6-Core Processor ($195.69 @ SuperBiiz)
Motherboard: ASRock - AB350M Micro ATX AM4 Motherboard ($65.98 @ Newegg)
Memory: Team - Vulcan 16GB (2 x 8GB) DDR4-2400 Memory ($99.99 @ Newegg)
Storage: PNY - CS1311 120GB 2.5" Solid State Drive ($52.99 @ Best Buy)
Storage: Western Digital - Caviar Blue 1TB 3.5" 7200RPM Internal Hard Drive ($48.44 @ OutletPC)
Video Card: Asus - GeForce GTX 1070 8GB Dual Series Video Card ($399.99 @ B&H)
Case: Inwin - 301 Black MicroATX Mini Tower Case ($76.98 @ Newegg)
Power Supply: SeaSonic - 520W 80+ Bronze Certified Fully-Modular ATX Power Supply ($56.99 @ SuperBiiz)
Prices include shipping, taxes, and discounts when available
Generated by PCPartPicker 2017-06-17 03:07 EDT-0400
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DMVPN is mentioned in the official CCNA guide and also in the CCNP (specifically Routing and Switching I'm talking here) but it isn't really listed to configure in the exam topics for the CCNP route. The exam blueprints state you need to 'Describe' but if you've ever attempted a Cisco exam before then you might know, that doesn't mean you might get a question related to the configuration side. We are going to be looking at a simple lab with some theory behind DMVPN without the encryption, but a basic explanation what DMVPN is:
DMVPN (Dynamic Multipoint VPN) isn't a protocol within itself, but is crafted by the various protocols used together to achieve what DMVPN does. It allows us to create a hub-spoke like topology with spokes being able to dynamically form a VPN between other remote spokes and the Hub. The protocols that create DMVPN:
-A dynamic routing protocol (common: EIGRP or OSPF)
IPSec is also a common protocol used but it isn't actually a requirement (although it is preferred since running plain GRE isn't the best idea...). Technically you don't actually need to run a dynamic routing protocol and have static routes but again it is very common to see a dynamic routing protocol. Before moving onto a basic introduction to configuration and the design, DMVPN can scale very large (thousands of remote sites) and not only allows our spokes with dynamic IP addresses to participate in the design but also the configuration is very effective instead of creating static tunnels for loads of remote sites.
The single hub topology design
This topology will use the internet as the underlay to transport our packets, although we will create an 'overlay' using multipoint GRE to carry our site traffic (10.x.x.x) using EIGRP. In DMVPN, we use the terms 'underlay' and 'overlay' a bit similar to GRE over IPSec where IPSec is used as the protocol to transport GRE otherwise we will have no protection. GRE is normally used to transport different traffic since IPSec itself can only carry unicast traffic, it you want to take advantage of multicast and other types of traffic then you can encapsulate with GRE and then send it over the IPSec tunnel as a unicast packet. In our case, we could even just use IPSec without GRE and just define the neighbors in our routing protocol so our updates and hellos etc.. are sent via unicast instead of multicast, that bypasses the learning and fun we'll see in this post!
Why not use typical GRE point to point tunnels? Firstly, this defeats the whole purpose what DMVPN achieves, it allows us to manage our design with ease and dynamically form tunnels with remote spokes and with the HUB. If we have a static tunnel configuration, think about it we need X amount of tunnels configured on the HUB depending how many spokes are in our design and then a tunnel from the spoke to the HUB, and then finally a tunnel from SpokeX to every single other spoke that exist if you need Spoke-Spoke communication without traffic traversing through the HUB.
Multipoint GRE allows a single tunnel configuration to then dynamically form tunnels without the need of loads of 'interface tunnel x' in the configuration. It can take the configuration of the single interface and then use NHRP to dynamically form tunnels to other routers.
Next Hop resolution protocol is the protocol in DMVPN which makes it possible for spokes to register their public IP address according to their tunnel interface IP address whether the public facing interface is static or dynamic. Everyone explains NHRP like ARP but on the internet instead of within a local LAN. The protocol works as a server-client model where clients would point to a server to register their address (more specifically their NBMA aka Non Broadcast Multi Access). We will look at NHRP in more detail not only with configuration but also verification commands and more theory when we actually see outputs.
Dynamic Routing Protocol
As I've mentioned, a routing protocol isn't actually a requirement for DMVPN although as you may know, a dynamic routing protocol makes routing more scalable when working with a large amount of subnets/networks. We will be using EIGRP in this example.
There are many design guides and generic guides on the web which show different methods such as using an IPSec profile directly in IOS or even having a firewall which offloads the resources for IPSec tunnels and then a router performing the GRE/NHRP etc.. In our example, I won't be using IPSec since the ipsec configuration is straight forward to lab but also very easy to setup using preshared keys, it gets more interesting when you begin to introduce a PKI server for certificates and IPSec enrollment instead of using keys/shared secrets...
Starting with the basic configuration of all the routers so you can follow along:Spoiler
!HUB interface Loopback0 ip address 10.0.0.1 255.255.255.0 ! interface Loopback1 ip address 10.0.1.1 255.255.255.0 ! interface Loopback2 ip address 10.0.2.1 255.255.255.0 ! interface Loopback3 ip address 10.0.3.1 255.255.255.0 ! interface GigabitEthernet0/0 ip address 220.127.116.11 255.255.255.252 ! ip route 0.0.0.0 0.0.0.0 18.104.22.168 !ISP interface GigabitEthernet0/0 ip address 22.214.171.124 255.255.255.252 ! interface GigabitEthernet0/1 ip address 126.96.36.199 255.255.255.252 ! interface GigabitEthernet0/2 ip address 188.8.131.52 255.255.255.252 ! interface GigabitEthernet0/3 ip address 184.108.40.206 255.255.255.252 !Spoke-1 interface Loopback0 ip address 10.10.1.1 255.255.255.0 ! interface GigabitEthernet0/0 ip address 220.127.116.11 255.255.255.252 ! ip route 0.0.0.0 0.0.0.0 18.104.22.168 !Spoke-2 interface Loopback0 ip address 10.10.2.1 255.255.255.0 ! interface GigabitEthernet0/0 ip address 22.214.171.124 255.255.255.252 ! ip route 0.0.0.0 0.0.0.0 126.96.36.199 !Spoke-3 interface Loopback0 ip address 10.10.3.1 255.255.255.0 ! interface GigabitEthernet0/0 ip address 188.8.131.52 255.255.255.252 ! ip route 0.0.0.0 0.0.0.0 184.108.40.206
Starting with a basic check, we can ping each spoke from the HUB:
HUB#ping 220.127.116.11 Type escape sequence to abort. Sending 5, 100-byte ICMP Echos to 18.104.22.168, timeout is 2 seconds: !!!!! Success rate is 100 percent (5/5), round-trip min/avg/max = 5/5/6 ms HUB#ping 22.214.171.124 Type escape sequence to abort. Sending 5, 100-byte ICMP Echos to 126.96.36.199, timeout is 2 seconds: !!!!! Success rate is 100 percent (5/5), round-trip min/avg/max = 4/5/6 ms HUB#ping 188.8.131.52 Type escape sequence to abort. Sending 5, 100-byte ICMP Echos to 184.108.40.206, timeout is 2 seconds: !!!!! Success rate is 100 percent (5/5), round-trip min/avg/max = 5/5/6 ms
Firstly, lets start with some basic tunnel configuration. What we need to configure, an overlay which will use the 192.168.254.0/24 network for the tunnels to communicate. Lets go ahead and actually configure some other important commands on our HUB which will also act as the 'Next Hop Server aka NHS' for NHRP.
HUB Configuration (Phase 1)
interface Tunnel0 ip address 192.168.254.1 255.255.255.0 no ip redirects ip nhrp map multicast dynamic ip nhrp network-id 10 tunnel source GigabitEthernet0/0 tunnel mode gre multipoint tunnel key 1
ip nhrp map multicast dynamic
On the hub, this command serves to map multicast packets to the mappings that are created within the NHRP database.
ip nhrp network-id 10
This is similar to the tunnel key command, where we can identify specific NHRP networks but this must match on all routers, this is required in a NHRP configuration.
tunnel key 1
The tunnel key command in a tunnel configuration mode allows us to define which tunnel specific packets belong to, this is important when we have multiple tunnels on the interface and as a best practice I like to specify this even with a single tunnel configuration.
Spoke Configuration (Phase 1)
interface tunnel 0 ip address 192.168.254.(x) 255.255.255.0 !Spoke-1 .10, Spoke-2 .20 and Spoke-3 as .30 no ip redirects ip nhrp map 192.168.254.1 220.127.116.11 ip nhrp network-id 10 ip nhrp nhs 192.168.254.1 tunnel source GigabitEthernet0/0 tunnel mode gre multipoint tunnel key 1
Let's capture some packets! If I shut down the tunnel interface on Spoke-1 and turn it back on, this looks like the things thing that happens relating to NHRP, which also reflects the configuration we have done.
Let's look into the NHRP packet itself and then see what conversation is going on. We'll look into the interesting stuff without getting into too much depth:
Firstly, Spoke-1 sends a NHRP Registration request (to 18.104.22.168 which is the HUB), you can see this request holds some information which will build the NHRP database we will see shortly. Spoke-1 actually announces its own NBMA address and the protocol address (in our case its our tunnel: 192.168.254.10, destination to 192.168.254.1 the tunnel interface on the HUB). These NHRP requests will be sent every 1/3rd of the Hold timer which by default is 7200s (found under the 'Client Information Entry'). The client expects a reply and will keep sending out NHRP requests double time (from 1, 2, 4 etc.. to 32... that is the theory for those CCNP exam takers!)
Next, we receive a reply from 22.214.171.124 (HUB), which looks like:
If we take a quick look at RFC2332, its states that Code 0 is indeed a successful register with the NHS. The next 2 packets were actually a repeated request/successful request which we won't dive into because they look the same as the above 2 request and reply NHRP packets.
With all the spokes configured, this process happens fairly quickly in our lab environment and we can now see a populated NHRP database which can be found using:
HUB#show dmvpn Interface: Tunnel0, IPv4 NHRP Details Type:Hub, NHRP Peers:3, # Ent Peer NBMA Addr Peer Tunnel Add State UpDn Tm Attrb ----- --------------- --------------- ----- -------- ----- 1 126.96.36.199 192.168.254.10 UP 00:16:59 D 1 188.8.131.52 192.168.254.20 UP 00:15:08 D 1 184.108.40.206 192.168.254.30 UP 00:14:54 D
HUB#ping 192.168.254.10 Type escape sequence to abort. Sending 5, 100-byte ICMP Echos to 192.168.254.10, timeout is 2 seconds: !!!!! Success rate is 100 percent (5/5), round-trip min/avg/max = 6/6/8 ms HUB#ping 192.168.254.20 Type escape sequence to abort. Sending 5, 100-byte ICMP Echos to 192.168.254.20, timeout is 2 seconds: !!!!! Success rate is 100 percent (5/5), round-trip min/avg/max = 6/6/8 ms HUB#ping 192.168.254.30 Type escape sequence to abort. Sending 5, 100-byte ICMP Echos to 192.168.254.30, timeout is 2 seconds: !!!!! Success rate is 100 percent (5/5), round-trip min/avg/max = 6/6/7 ms
Do you think we would be able to ping Spoke-1 (192.168.254.10) from Spoke-2?
Spoke-2#ping 192.168.254.10 Type escape sequence to abort. Sending 5, 100-byte ICMP Echos to 192.168.254.10, timeout is 2 seconds: !!!!! Success rate is 100 percent (5/5), round-trip min/avg/max = 6/12/25 ms
The answer is yes! Although something happens behind the scenes. How could Spoke-2 possibly know how to get to 192.168.254.10? What happened was Spoke-2 actually send an NHRP request to its NHS (192.168.254.1). Because we have mapped the public IP address 220.127.116.11 to reach the HUB/NHS we can instantly send a request for 192.168.254.10.
You can see above, we sent our NBMA and the Tunnel address, but the destination is 192.168.254.10. We are going to practically be asking, what is the NMBA address for 192.168.254.10? Now this is the part where NHRP gets interesting, try to see if something looks different below:
If we just explain a quick overview, we send an NHRP request for 192.168.254.10 to 18.104.22.168 (which is our NHS). When the request hits the NHS, it will actually send it to the NMBA which is registered in the NHRP database (being 22.214.171.124). Spoke-1 (126.96.36.199) actually replies with its information (NMBA and Tunnel address 192.168.254.10). If we do a traceroute from Spoke-2 when the NHRP table is cleared on Spoke-2, have a look at the results that prove this:
Spoke-2#traceroute 192.168.254.10 1 192.168.254.1 9 msec 192.168.254.10 7 msec 6 msec Spoke-2#show dmvpn Interface: Tunnel0, IPv4 NHRP Details Type:Spoke, NHRP Peers:2, # Ent Peer NBMA Addr Peer Tunnel Add State UpDn Tm Attrb ----- --------------- --------------- ----- -------- ----- 1 188.8.131.52 192.168.254.1 UP 00:27:00 S 1 184.108.40.206 192.168.254.10 UP 00:00:23 D Spoke-2#traceroute 192.168.254.10 1 192.168.254.10 8 msec 7 msec *
If the entry is not in our NHRP database, then the first few packets/traffic will traverse through the HUB until we receive the reply with the NBMA address of Spoke-1. This is the dynamic part of DMVPN already in action, because we learn the address to send traffic to if we want to directly communicate with that Spoke.
When we start advertising our networks from the spokes, this will change and then we can start talking about the different phases that can change the flow of traffic and how routes are propagated throughout this DMVPN design. We are going to configure EIGRP to setup a relationship which each neighbor but also advertise the loopbacks into EIGRP.
router eigrp 1 network 10.0.0.0 0.255.255.255 network 192.168.254.0 0.0.0.255
We can put a more granular network statement to chose what participates into EIGRP but let us keep it simple and sweet. We'll look at the phases in DMVPN which can change our traffic flow and how we learn routes. Before moving on, we can come across an issue with EIGRP neighbor flapping with the tunnels, we must include a command in our tunnel configuration on each spoke which allows us to map multicast traffic to the NBMA address of the Hub.
interface tunnel 0 ip nhrp map multicast 220.127.116.11
Confirming EIGRP neighbors on the HUB:
HUB#sh ip eigrp ne EIGRP-IPv4 Neighbors for AS(1) H Address Interface Hold Uptime SRTT RTO Q Seq (sec) (ms) Cnt Num 2 192.168.254.30 Tu0 14 00:02:02 12 1506 0 5 1 192.168.254.20 Tu0 13 00:02:07 624 3744 0 5 0 192.168.254.10 Tu0 11 00:02:16 9 1506 0 6
If we have a look at the routes that the HUB has dynamically learned via EIGRP:
HUB#sh ip route eigrp 10.0.0.0/8 is variably subnetted, 11 subnets, 2 masks D 10.10.1.0/24 [90/27008000] via 192.168.254.10, 00:05:46, Tunnel0 D 10.10.2.0/24 [90/27008000] via 192.168.254.20, 00:05:38, Tunnel0 D 10.10.3.0/24 [90/27008000] via 192.168.254.30, 00:05:30, Tunnel0
There is an issue that can occur because of the default behaviour with EIGRP, if we take a look at the routing table for Spoke-3:
Spoke-3#show ip route eigrp 10.0.0.0/8 is variably subnetted, 6 subnets, 2 masks D 10.0.0.0/24 [90/27008000] via 192.168.254.1, 00:06:29, Tunnel0 D 10.0.1.0/24 [90/27008000] via 192.168.254.1, 00:06:29, Tunnel0 D 10.0.2.0/24 [90/27008000] via 192.168.254.1, 00:06:29, Tunnel0 D 10.0.3.0/24 [90/27008000] via 192.168.254.1, 00:06:29, Tunnel0
We can see routes behind the HUB (eg. loopbacks) that can successfully be reached via the Tunnel interface, the issue is with routes from other spokes. The default behaviour with EIGRP is to not advertise a route out of an interface which it was received on (eg. Tunnel 0), this is a very good example of Split Horizon which is also apart of RIP and how that protocol works. We can simply solve this with an interface command on the HUB:
interface tunnel 0 no ip split-horizon eigrp 1
Looking back at the routing table for Spoke-3:
Spoke-3#show ip route eigrp 10.0.0.0/8 is variably subnetted, 8 subnets, 2 masks D 10.0.0.0/24 [90/27008000] via 192.168.254.1, 00:09:07, Tunnel0 D 10.0.1.0/24 [90/27008000] via 192.168.254.1, 00:09:07, Tunnel0 D 10.0.2.0/24 [90/27008000] via 192.168.254.1, 00:09:07, Tunnel0 D 10.0.3.0/24 [90/27008000] via 192.168.254.1, 00:09:07, Tunnel0 D 10.10.1.0/24 [90/28288000] via 192.168.254.1, 00:00:12, Tunnel0 D 10.10.2.0/24 [90/28288000] via 192.168.254.1, 00:00:12, Tunnel0
The phases are kind of steps during the DMVPN process when you have:
Phase 1) Only Hub-Spoke traffic
Phase 2) Spokes can then dynamically form tunnels with other spokes, no need to go through the HUB (firstly initial traffic will go through HUB because of the NHRP request)
Phase 3) Spokes can dynamically reply to a NHRP request and spokes can work together without the HUB to initiate traffic between them
During phase 1, our traffic will ALWAYS go through the HUB because although we have turned off 'split horizon', the HUB will advertise the routes from other spokes via itself. The next hop IP address in the routing table will show the HUBs IP address as shown below: (Notice all routes are reachable via 192.168.254.1)
Spoke-1#show ip route eigrp 10.0.0.0/8 is variably subnetted, 8 subnets, 2 masks D 10.0.0.0/24 [90/27008000] via 192.168.254.1, 00:49:16, Tunnel0 D 10.0.1.0/24 [90/27008000] via 192.168.254.1, 00:49:16, Tunnel0 D 10.0.2.0/24 [90/27008000] via 192.168.254.1, 00:49:16, Tunnel0 D 10.0.3.0/24 [90/27008000] via 192.168.254.1, 00:49:16, Tunnel0 D 10.10.2.0/24 [90/28288000] via 192.168.254.1, 00:40:05, Tunnel0 D 10.10.3.0/24 [90/28288000] via 192.168.254.1, 00:40:05, Tunnel0
If we simply use a command on the HUB, we can allow the routes to be pushed out without the HUB adding itself as the next hop to reach the network. This is also moving the DMVPN into phase 2 where direct communication between spokes don't need to transverse the HUB all the time.
interface Tunnel0 no ip next-hop-self eigrp 1
Before looking into what this does, now we will take another look at the routing table:
Spoke-1#show ip route eigrp 10.0.0.0/8 is variably subnetted, 8 subnets, 2 masks D 10.0.0.0/24 [90/27008000] via 192.168.254.1, 00:00:21, Tunnel0 D 10.0.1.0/24 [90/27008000] via 192.168.254.1, 00:00:21, Tunnel0 D 10.0.2.0/24 [90/27008000] via 192.168.254.1, 00:00:21, Tunnel0 D 10.0.3.0/24 [90/27008000] via 192.168.254.1, 00:00:21, Tunnel0 D 10.10.2.0/24 [90/28288000] via 192.168.254.20, 00:00:21, Tunnel0 D 10.10.3.0/24 [90/28288000] via 192.168.254.30, 00:00:21, Tunnel0
We can now see, 10.10.2.0/24 via 192.168.254.20 and 10.10.3.0/24 via 192.168.254.30. This command will not make the HUB advertise the routes via itself. Back to Phase 3, the spoke itself can reply directly to a request because currently the request is being sent to the HUB and then the HUB is forwarding that request towards the destination.
Here is an example of a basic packet capture when Spoke-1 tries to ping 10.10.3.1 (Spoke-3):
You can see, the original source (18.104.22.168 - Spoke-1) is sent towards 22.214.171.124(HUB) and then, 126.96.36.199(HUB) sends it to 188.8.131.52(Spoke-3). To make this into Phase 3, we can simply add 2 commands on the hub and then a command on each spoke:
!HUB interface tunnel 0 ip nhrp redirect ip nhrp shortcut !SPOKES interface tunnel 0 ip nhrp shortcut
Its 3:34AM and I need sleep (said this an hour ago...) so will update this when I get some time tomorrow...
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…is a pretty unique one. Let me explain.
When I was a child, I would entertain myself with all sorts of PC games. My favourites were old ones – usually, they were W2K-compatible – including RollerCoaster Tycoon 2, Age of Empires I and II, Pharaoh/Cleopatra, Caesar III, and a few other ones I can’t remember. As I grew older, I started programming, and gradually outgrew video games; the more I learned about computers, the less interest I had in games.
Throughout all of this time, there was no such thing as a “gaming PC” to me. Never heard that in my life back then. I had a relative who built PCs, and I thought that was real cool when I was young, but I was still afraid of it all and unsure so I stayed away. By the time I became educated enough to build a PC, Haswell was the here-and-now, and my interest in gaming was almost out the window… almost. I knew what a GPU was and all, but I never had a need for one!
As the years waned on, I learned more and more about the Internet, and learned how to protect my identity and privacy OTI. I started using GNU/Linux more and more frequently, still only playing games on Windows on occasion. Finally, in 2014 I quit using Windows altogether, and with it my gaming habits took another deathly blow. As the dust settled, and as Broadwell hit the market (better late than never), ideas about what I really wanted out of my system began to form.
Broadwell put a whole new light in my eyes, for what a good system running Linux could be. Because of the current state of affairs with dedicated GPU (dGPU) drivers being a deplorable mess on our operating system (see this image for details), and the fact that the only good drivers on Linux were Intel’s, I knew I had no choice but to choose Intel for my GPU needs. It was like a match made in heaven: with how little I played video games being sated by an Iris Pro iGPU, on top of having 128MiB of L4 cache plus an unlocked design and four hyperthreaded cores with VT-x and VT-d… it was all I could ask for.
…but sadly, Broadwell and I were not meant to be. The LGA 1150 platform was on its way out, along with DDR3 and the rest of the Haswell-era junk. I wanted something new, running fast DDR4 DIMMs with large capacities and good speeds, and I wanted a Skylake chip for sure. Skylake… it was such a pristine name to grace my ears. I had to have it. And so, piecing a build together over the course of a few months, I finally built Henen-nesw, a working
tractor beamSkylake PC running a Core i3 with Intel HD graphics. Later on I was enticed by rumours of the next step in Intel’s lineup—Kaby Lake—having SKUs built like Broadwell but with all of the modern amenities that Skylake had. And at that point… I was set for Kaby Lake-S Iris Pro.
…Now, all this time I haven’t said one word about that NIC. Why? Well, I thought I’d save it for my loyal readers, who push through to the end! Mwahahaha! Thank you!
So I’ve gone over how in love I am with Intel’s soon-to-be-released Kaby Lake Iris Pro graphics. We all know at this point that I simply have no use for Nvidia’s or AMD’s dGPUs at all on the mainstream. But I’ll tell you, while I won’t spend $250 on a dGPU, I will spend $250 on a network card.
Interestingly enough, Google Fiber (yes, fibre optics) is under construction right now in our metro! And I would love more than anything to get the best internet speeds and even greater speeds on my intranet, enjoying over 1 gigabyte per second locally, and 1 gigabit per second through the tubes. Google Fiber has even put our suburb specifically on the map, too! And considering our unique location for running cables, Google may cut us some slack and let us sign up just for that.
One can only hope, right?
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So I got a PowerBook G4. Yay! Only problem is, Mac OS X 10.5.8 is just borderline useful in 2016, especially on a PowerPC machine with 512MB RAM. That, and I grew frustrated with the way how Mac OS X is designed. So, I decided to install Linux on it. Here's how things went down:
- Downloaded Ubuntu MATE 15.10 PowerPC ISO
- Wrote it to an 8GB flash drive using LiLi
- Tried booting to it, it wouldn't boot
- Tried using the Mini ISO instead
- Mini ISO was missing a lot of things
- When I finally got it working, it was missing a lot of kernel modules (among other things) and was incredibly slow, almost slower than Mac OS X was; it was also extremely prone to breaking
- Finally figure out what I was doing wrong, used dd to write the ISO to the flash drive instead of LiLi and it booted
- Installed Ubuntu graphically, after working around a bug I encountered early on in my adventure that causes Ubuntu to crash if I don't type "radeon.agpmode=-1" into the yaboot prompt when booting or yaboot.conf file
- Using nano in a tty, I added "radeon.agpmode=-1" to yaboot.conf, updated the boot partition and rebooted to keep it from crashing
- Couldn't get wireless working, still used Ethernet for internetting
- Got sound working by editing the config files and alsamixer in a terminal
- Still couldn't get wireless working, put in an 802.11g PC Card into the PCMCIA slot instead
And now I have a more useful PowerBook G4. Runs much better than OS X did, too, and it'll run even better when I upgrade it to 2GB RAM. Maybe an SSD too... but getting to this point took so friggin' long and I'm glad it's over.
Guess this oughta exist.
Counting Paramount tapes only, no specific variant within that realm.
Regular Holiday Specials:
A Charlie Brown Christmas - ✓ (1998 print)
It's the Great Pumpkin, Charlie Brown - ✓ (2000 reprint of 1997 tape)
A Charlie Brown Thanksgiving - ✗
Be My Valentine, Charlie Brown - ✗
It's the Easter Beagle, Charlie Brown - ✓ (2001 reprint of 1994? tape)
Happy New Year, Charlie Brown - ✓ (1996 print)
Series of Releases:
Snoopy Double Feature:
- You're the Greatest, Charlie Brown and Snoopy's Reunion - ✓ (original Paramount Communications tape, 1994 print)
- He's Your Dog, Charlie Brown and It's Flashbeagle, Charlie Brown - ✗
- You're in Love, Charlie Brown and It's Your First Kiss, Charlie Brown - ✗
- What a Nightmare, Charlie Brown and It's Magic, Charlie Brown - ✓ (1998 print)
- There's No Time for Love, Charlie Brown and Someday You'll Find Her, Charlie Brown - ✗
- Life's a Circus, Charlie Brown and Snoopy's Getting Married, Charlie Brown - ✗
- Charlie Brown's All-Stars! and It's Spring Training, Charlie Brown - ✗
- You're Not Elected, Charlie Brown and It Was a Short Summer, Charlie Brown - ✗
The Charlie Brown and Snoopy Show:
- Volume 1 - ✗ [You Can't Win, Charlie Brown and Linus' Security Blanket episodes]
- Volume 2 - ✗ [Snoopy's Cat Fight and Linus and Lucy episodes]
- Volume 3 - ✓ [Snoopy: Man's Best Friend and The Lost Ballpark episodes] (2003 reprint of 1994 tape; missing slip cover)
- Volume 4 - ✗ [Snoopy: Team Manager and Lucy Loves Schroeder episodes]
- Volume 5 - ✗ [Snoopy the Psychiatrist and Lucy vs. the World episodes]
- Volume 6 - ✗ [Snoopy's Football Career and Chaos in the Classroom episodes]
- Volume 7 - ✗ [It's That Team Spirit, Charlie Brown and Snoopy and the Giant episodes]
- Volume 8 - ✗ [Snoopy's Brother Spike and Snoopy's Robot episodes]
- Volume 9 - ✗ [Peppermint Patty's School Days and Sally's Sweet Babboo episodes]
- Volumes 1 and 2 - ✗ [You Can't Win, Charlie Brown, Linus' Security Blanket, Snoopy's Cat Fight and Linus and Lucy episodes; rental exclusive?]
This is America, Charlie Brown:
- Volume 1: The Great Inventors - ✗
- Volume 2: The Wright Brothers at Kitty Hawk - ✗
- Volume 3: The Building of the Transcontinental Railroad - ✗
- Volume 4: The Mayflower Voyagers - ✗
- Volume 5: The NASA Space Station - ✗
- Volume 6: The Birth of the Constitution - ✗
- Volume 7: The Smithsonian and the Presidency - ✗
- Volume 8: The Music and Heroes of America - ✗
Initial Paramount Releases:
It Was My Best Birthday Ever, Charlie Brown - ✓
It's the Pied Piper, Charlie Brown - ✓ (English and Spanish clamshell covers, Spanish cover includes English tape)
A Charlie Brown Valentine - ✗
Lucy Must Be Traded, Charlie Brown - ✗
I Want a Dog for Christmas, Charlie Brown - ✗
A Boy Named Charlie Brown - ✗
Snoopy Come Home - ✗ (Fox print; I need the Paramount print)
Race for Your Life, Charlie Brown - ✓ (1999 reprint of 1994? tape)
Bon Voyage, Charlie Brown (and Don't Come Back!) - ✓ (however, I would like to get a later print; this is the 1985 Gulf and Western print)
Other Paramount Tapes:
Empty until further notice.
One-off Specials and Musicals:
You're a Good Man, Charlie Brown - ✗
Snoopy the Musical - ✗
The Big Stuffed Dog - ✗
It's the Girl in the Red Truck, Charlie Brown - ✗
You Don't Look 40, Charlie Brown - ✗
December 10th - Added episodes for Volume 8 of The Charlie Brown and Snoopy Show
December 11th - Added another Snoopy Double Feature tape (Charlie Brown's All-Stars! and It's Spring Training, Charlie Brown)
December 11th R2 - Added yet another Snoopy Double Feature tape (You're Not Elected, Charlie Brown and It Was a Short Summer, Charlie Brown)
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I'm lost, I don't know what to do! I've been friends with this girl for a few years and last week we went to the movies together, we were supposed to go with a group of friends but they didn't get their tickets in time so we went alone. For some reason I don't know something changed between us, on Monday it was as usual but as the rumors of us dating intensified I felt this weird tension between us. Then today I find out she likes me, and I am lost. I like her as a friend, she's one of my best friends but I don't think I like her in the sense that I want to be her boyfriend. I feel really shitty though, breaking her heart makes me feel like crap, I'm friendzoning her, and I hate it. I'm afraid that if it doesn't work out it destroys our friendship and I don't want that. I feel like crap. :(
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Most people describe Beats as either overpriced or that they sound awful. Two things statements in that sentence, "overpriced, and "sound awful", need to be addressed. Consumers say that Beats is overpriced, but compared to what? You can't say something is overpriced unless you can compare it to something that has a better value than what you are calling overpriced. Secondly, people say that Beats sound terrible simple because the music they listen to doesn't fit the sound signature that Beats implements in their headphones. I'm not trying to defend Beats nor am I trying to rant about them what I'm trying to say is that sound is subjective and what may sound good to one person, may sound like total shit to another person. I don't personally like Beats by Dre because the music I listen to doesn't go well with the Beats sound signature and that the bass is overpowering but I have a friend who listens to a lot of bass heavy music who owns a pair of Razer Kraken headphones who would love the way Beats sound. I tell him that he would love a pair but he says he doesn't want to spend an additional 150 plus dollars on another pair of headphones which brings me to my next point. Yes Beats are not cheap but there is a big reason why. If you go around asking people about headphone brands they've heard about most people would most likely bring up Beats. There's two causes for this. One, Dr. Dre. put his name one them. Dr. Dre, as we all know is a very famous artist. Since, Dr. Dre endorsed this headphone brand, people figured oh, if he makes these headphones then they have to be good. The second cause is this, Beats spends a ton of money of packaging, and advertisement. Beats, I'd be willing to bet, costs less than 200 dollars is parts to make but many of them cost over twice as much. If you go around asking people if they have heard of brands like Audio Technica or Sennheiser most consumers would probably say no. That's because Beats spend a ton of money on marketing to get their name out there. Beats also spend a ton of money on packaging. I got a pair of Beats and returned them after a week. The unboxing experience was probably the best unboxing I had for a pair of headphones. As a result Beats owns over 64% of the headphone market. That is HUGE. Beats are also extremely well built and look "great" (looks are subjective). It seems that Beats does everything so well except the sound according to most people. In the end when you are in the market for a pair of headphones choose your price range, and what you care more about, sound or build quality and looks. That's all I have to say. In Linus Tech Tip outro fashion, like this blog if you liked, dislike it if you disliked it (wait you can't dislike posts here), leave a comment if your feelings are mixed and don't forget to subscribe (but why would you :)).